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Take better photographs

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by

Adrian Taylor

on 14 October 2013

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Transcript of Take better photographs

Take better photographs
exposure
depth of field
landscapes
portraits
the right gear
Questions?
Think Black & White
aperture
shutter speed
ISO
exposure
Zone System
Everything = Grey
Averages matter
Center Weighted Metering
Spot Metering
Matrix Metering
Whatever is under the centre spot in your viewfinder
comes out grey.
take the brightest and darkest points in the viewfinder
the average of the two gives the "correct exposure"
works like average metering
BUT
gives higher weighting to the centre of the viewfinder
Ideal for portraits
Your camera measures around 1000 points in the frame
It compares the measurements and their positions in the frame with a database of "known" images
Makes a decision based on that database
The Aperture is how wide open or closed the lens is
"helpfully" the smaller the number, the bigger the hole
Aperture controls how much light is allowed into the camera
The shutter speed control governs how long the shutter is open
i.e. how much time there is for light to strike the film or sensor
It's measured in seconds or fractions of a second, e.g. 1/120, 1/30
ISO is the "film speed", or how sensitive the camera is to light
Higher numbers = more sensitive
Trade Off - image quality degrades as ISO increases
the exposure triangle
Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO all affect exposure
Change one, and to keep the exposure the same you have to change another
e.g. If the correct exposure at ISO200 is f/16 and 1/250
- if you increase the ISO to 400, then either the aperture has to decrease (smaller hole = less light), or the shutter speed needs to get faster.
ISO400, f/16 and 1/500
or
ISO 400 f/22 and 1/250
At ISO200, the following are the same (and more):

f/4, 1/2000
f/5.6, 1/1000
f/8, 1/500
f/16, 1/250
f/22, 1/125
Depth of Field means how much of the image is "acceptably" in focus

The depth of field is controlled by the Aperture setting - the smaller the hole (i.e. less light coming in), the greater the depth of field.

A bigger hole = shallow depth of field
Use big Aperture numbers (small hole) for landscapes

Use small Aperture numbers (big hole) for portraits
Portraits are hard...
Tips:
Use a longer lens (more zoomed in)
Use shallow depth of field
Make sure they're looking at YOU
Above All
Stay away from the wall

Never shoot square on
Wider people...

Shoot from above
Big features (noses?)

Longer lens, further away
Landscapes are all about...
Light
Composition
Exposure
image by spodzone@flickr
Tips
Use a small aperture -big number, small hole
Use a wider angle lens
Don't be afraid of using portrait orientation
Invest in some graduated Neutral Density Filters. Avoid Cokin...
More megapixels does not = better photos
More megapixels does not = better image quality
Buying a more expensive camera doesn't mean your pictures will be better or be higher quality
Choose a camera that when you pick it up, you feel like you want to take photos with it
Lenses are all important - choosing good lenses WILL make a significant difference to image quality
For portraits - a good flash is a bonus

A sharp, wide aperture lens is a must, ideally 50mm or longer.

85mm f2.8 or 50mm f1.8 work well
For landscapes - wide angle lens (e.g. 10-20mm) and neutral density filters
Full transcript