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Copy of AE06 overview L3

Level 3
by

stuart Ramsbottom

on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of Copy of AE06 overview L3

Components, functions, operation, control units, sensors,
seat belt pre-tensioners, airbag assemblies, wiring systems, warning systems.

Operation of sensors, airbag unit, types of pretension, safe handling procedures and regulations

Fault diagnosis and testing.
Components, functions, operation of wiper motors ,
intermittent wash, wiper relays, parking systems, washer motors, wiper linkages,
multifunction relays, headlamp wash/wipe
Fault diagnosis and testing
Identify components and function of radios, CD and multi play units, DVD players, MP3 players, speakers, aerial systems, amplifiers, V.D.U. screens, SAT/NAV, communication units.
Multiplexing.
Operation of entertainment systems speaker and aerial systems.
Fault diagnosis and testing: entertainment and navigation units not operating, speaker, aerial and amplifier systems not functioning correctly, excessive radio interference (suppression), use of diagnostic computers and systems
Welcome to AEO6
Advanced lighting technology:
Operation and construction of motors, relays, interfaces, modules, switches

Fault diagnosis and testing: electric windows or sunroof failing to open or close, electric mirrors fail to adjust, slow operation on both systems
Electric windows, sunroof, mirror systems & components:
Screen heating systems and components:
Operation and construction, heated front screens, heated mirrors. Components, front screen elements, mirror elements, time control relays, multifunction relays and switches.

Fault diagnosis and testing: screen elements not operating, timer relays not operating and staying on permanently
I.C.E. systems and components:
Security/warning systems and components:
Identify components and function of control units, alarm modules, audible warning units,
immobilisers, sensing units, horn, and audible warning speakers.
Operation of alarm systems and audible warning units.
Identify relevant legislation
Identify faults and testing methods
Wiper and washer systems:
Heaters, cooling system and air con electrical components:
Door locking actuators, solenoids, dead locking actuators,
anti-theft modules and luggage compartment release solenoids.
Fault diagnosis and testing.
Locking system:
Supplementary Restraint and Airbag systems:
Comfort Control Systems:
Internal heater systems
Electronic climate control:
operation of electrical/electronic components extra to those found in conventional air-con: control panel, sunlight sensors, and internal/external temperature sensors.

Fault diagnosis and testing.
Xenon lighting, gas discharge lighting, ballast system
LED
Intelligent front lighting,
Blue lights,
Complex reflectors
Fibre optics
Optical patterning,
External lighting systems and multiplexing systems
Circuits, sidelights, dipped beam, main beam, dim/dip
Common faults and testing methods.
Identify components, function and operation of :

heater motors, rheostats, electro-valves, switches, relays, cooling fan motors, air conditioning compressor electro-magnetic clutch units, and thermostatic switches.

Fault diagnosis and testing
Advanced Lighting Technology
Xenon lighting, gas discharge lighting, ballast systems.
LED, intelligent lighting, complex reflector,
fibre optics, optical pattern.
External lighting systems
multiplexing systems
Circuits sidelights, dipped beam,
main beam, faults and diagnosis

AE06

What type of switch is fitted to a electric window switch?

a) A toggle switch.
b) An AC converter switch.
c) A rocker type switch.
d) An earth switch.

AE06

What is the most obvious advantage of LED lighting?    

a) Slow reaction time increasing life expectancy.   
b) They are cheaper to produce than normal bulbs.  
c) Greater reliability.    
d) They produce a bright blue light from 1 LED.

What is the purpose of using ultra-violet light?  

a) All of the answers are correct.    
b) To assist the main lights by illuminating fluorescent signs and markings.    
c) Not to dazzle on coming traffic with its invisible beam.   
d) To penetrate fog with no return dazzle.

What is the most common use of LED lighting in modern vehicles?  
  a) High level brake lights.   
 b) Indicator lights.   
  c) Front fog lights.   
  d) Reverse lights.
The gas discharge bulb contains?
 a) Filament, xenon, mercury and metal salts    
b) Tungsten, argon and glass     
c) Electrodes, argon, mercury and metal salts  
d) Electrodes, xenon, mercury and metal salts
 

Level Three Revision
Electrical unit

AE06

A vehicle equipped with CAN bus, why would the ABS module communicate with the Speedo unit?

a) Because its on the same network.
b) To transmit engine temperature.
c) For road speed information.
d) To notify the driver of brake light operation.

AE06

How does a windscreen wiper motor increases in speed?

a) By increasing the voltage to the motor.
b) A gear change in the motor.
c) Another 12 volt feed is applied to the armature.
d) By a power boost relay applied to the switch.

AE06

What are the main advantages of using LED brake lights?

a) Reduction in power consumption.
b) Smaller, fit more easily into vehicle.
c) Can be different colours.
d) Have much quicker lead time, come on much quicker than conventional bulbs.

AE06

When gas discharge lights are fitted to a vehicle, the vehicle must also be fitted with?

a) Self leveling rear suspension.
b) Higher power alternator.
c) Automatic head light beam leveling device.
d) Automatic lamps function.

AE06

Which is not a benefit of Gas discharge head lamp?

a) High light intensity.
b) The bulb lasts longer than a Halogen bulb.
c) No requirement for added power stages.
d) Lower power consumption.

AE06

What is a D1 head light bulb?

a) A halogen double filament type bulb.
b) A high pressure type single filament bulb.
c) A type of gas discharge head lamp bulb.
d) A halogen unshielded type of bulb.

AE06

What statement is not true about CAN bus?

a) It reduces the amount of electrical connectors.
b) All systems work at the same net work speed.
c) It reduces the weight of the vehicle.
d) CAN bus operates on digital signals.

AE06

A heated rear window has no earth connection what would you expect to find when testing it?

a) No voltage at the element.
b) No voltage at the earth wire connector.
c) 12volts at the element.
d) 12volts at one side of the element 3volts at the other side of the element.

AE06


Using the above diagram give a brief description into how the system operates.


Advanced Electric Windows and wiper systems
What colour combinations are used for the following…
Driver’s window motor:

______________________

Passenger window motor:

______________________

What rating of fuse is used for circuit protection?

______________________

What colour is this fuse?

______________________

What pin in the control unit is supplied with a 12V feed?

What colour combination is used for the vehicle earth?

______________________

What pin numbers are used for the driver’s window toggle switch?

______________________

What type of voltage is used in this circuit?

______________________
If the motor draws 20 amps and the what is the resistance(use the ohms law triangle to work it out on next slide
1. Worm wheel.

2. Brush.

3. Magnet.

4Armature

5 Commutator

Two-speed
The two-speed has three brushes,
the additional brush being set at a small angle from one
of the others

Two-speed
The two-speed has three brushes, the additional brush being set at a small angle from one
of the others

When current is applied to 'B', a low wipe rate of about 50 wiping cycles per minute is
obtained; this is increased to about 70 wiping cycles per minute when current is applied to
terminal 'C'. The rise in speed is due to the increase in current flow through the motor.

When brushes 'A' and 'C' are used, fewer armature windings are involved so the lower
resistance gives a larger current flow and a higher rotational speed. As the speed increases
a rise in back-Electromagnetic Field (EMF) reduces the current flow.

Rotary movement of the motor is converted by a reduction worm gear into linear movement
to drive the linkage and wiper arms. The worm gear reduction can multiply the torque of the
motor by about 50 times, while slowing the output speed of the electric motor by 50 times as
well.

Self-switching wiper motors


Self-parking Wipers
RECAP
orange
using ohms law work out
I=13
R=3
V=?
what are the key components of a wiper motor?
Blue
RED
How does the wiper motor work on single speed?
How does the wiper motor increase speed?
Black
What is self switching?

White
What is self parking?
Green
Yellow
How does the limit switch work?
How does the motor stop on self switching
Brown
What is terminal 30 for ?
Light Green
What is terminal 86 and 85 for?
Grey
Any Questions ?
The elements of a rear screen heater consumes a considerable amount of power as it has to heat a large area.
Therefore the current supply is nearly always via a relay to minimise volt drop in the cable. Operation is normally only possible when the ignition is switched on, and often only when the engine is running.

Many vehicles are being fitted with wiper motors that incorporate integrated control electronics.
The advantage is that the motor can be continuously reversed by the electronic controller and hence produces the required reciprocating motion directly. The installation space required for the motor linkage is less and provides more flexibility to allow the maximum wiped area.

When selected this mode operates for a single sweep every few seconds.

The circuit that activates the intermittent relay is a pulse generator which provides a pulse of sufficient time to allow the motor to move the limit switch beyond the ‘park’ position

Due to motor inertia it is possible for the motor to ‘run on’,
passing the limit switch open position, and thus the wipers will not park.
The solution is to brake the armature in addition to cutting the supply.
When the limit position is reached, the supply to the motor is cut and the motor armature is short-circuited via an earth connection on each side. Any residual energy in the armature is then dissipated via current flowing in this and the motor stops abruptly.

When the driver switches the wipers off,
the motor continues to run until the wiper blades are at the end of the stroke (known as self switching).
In some cases the wiper blades move into a position beyond the normal wiping arc so that they are completely off the screen, (known as self parking).

All front wipers have at least two-speed operation. Low or normal speed gives approximately 50 wiping cycles a minute.
High-speed gives approximately 70 cycles a minute. The method of achieving the two speeds with a permanent magnet motor involves the inclusion of a second brush on one side of the commutator.

Electronic wiper systems
Look at the drawing above if the motor had 20teeth and the wheel had 50 teeth.
what would the ratio be
50/20=2 r10
=100/20=5=2.5:1


RED
White
Green
Black
Yellow
Grey
Brown
Dark Green
Blue
Two main types of damper are used

Types of Damper

Servo Motor

Temperature Control
Evaporator and water temperature sensors

Types of Sensors

the temperature must be adjustable
heat must be available as soon as possible
heat needs to be directed to different areas of the inside of the vehicle
ventilation must be provided with minimum noise
the system must be able to demist all windows
ease of operation is essential for safety reasons.

Climate Control Requirements

Climate Control

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......

State the main functional requirements of a vehicle heater system:



What are the four main functions of air conditioning?


What name is given to signal devices used in vehicle climate control systems?


Progress check 6

Climate Control Actuator Layout

Air inlet control servo motor (stepper)

Air flow control servo motor (stepper)

Servo Motor
Heater unit

Servo or stepper motor can be stopped in an exact position. The computer energises specific coils to attract the armature and stop it in the desired position.
In this example, four coils have been used to maintain clarity.

Rotor stops at energised coils

Rotor

Coils energised

ECU

ECU controls which coils are energised.

Servo Motor

The ambient air temperature sensor may be found
within the front bumper area. Two sensors may be fitted.

Resin case

Condenser

Temperature Control
Ambient sensors

Thermistor

Can be fitted on top of the instrument panel in the centre or two sensors may be used,
one at each corner.

Temperature Control
Solar sensors

Temperature

Electrical resistance

PTC

NTC

Temperature control
Room sensors

Actuators

ECU

Sensors and controls

Control Systems

State the purpose of the filter fitted in the intake air flow passage of climate control systems:



Explain the purpose of the AUTO air distribution control function:



Progress check 6 (contd.)

……………

………….....

………

c) The air flow control lever is set to the foot position but warm air is not being directed to the
floor (the temperature control lever and linked dampers are functioning normally). Name the malfunctioning damper(s):

b) With the air flow control set to face, no air is coming from the centre vent.
Name the components that are not functioning.

a) The air flow mode control lever was set to the the defrost position
but the front windscreen is still misty whilst warm air is being directed to the floor. Name the malfunctioning damper(s):

Answer the following questions referring to the previous diagram:

Progress check 5 (contd.)

Rear

Foot

Side vent

Centre vent

Side vent

Defroster

B

A

D

C

E

Progress check 5 (contd.)

……………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………….......
………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………

List three types of sensors and three actuator control devices:


Explain the meaning of NTC and PTC:




An ambient temperature sensor measures what?

Servo motors operate what?



Progress check 5

Blower

Temperature Control
Regulation

Temperature sensor

Air conditioning switch

Air re-circulation

Air distribution control

Increase temperature control button

Cool down button

In car temperature setting

Set to automatic or manual blower control

Control and Display

…………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………..

……………………………….

…………………………

What controls servo motor operation?

Name two methods of controlling damper movement:

Two types of damper are:


Two methods of controlling blower speed are:

The function of the air inlet damper is to:

The function of the air flow control damper is to:

Progress check 5 (contd.)

NTC Thermistor

Air intake

Coils off

........................

An example of a stepper motor (servo motor)

....................................................

.................

.................

................

Servo Motor

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Online assessment.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Pressure.

If the pressure was increased what would be the boiling point of water ???

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Heat transfer.

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

To refrigerate is to remove heat


Heat will transfer from a hotter
substance to the cooler, until
the temperature is equal.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Heat transfer.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

Suction accumulator

Installed in the low pressure return line

Avoids large quantities of liquid refrigerant entering the compressor

Mainly used in truck refrigeration units

Intermittent use of the compressor.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

Pressure sensor

Location high side only

Compressor protection

Pressure too high, possible risk of rupture

Pressure too low refrigerant and PAG oil will not mix.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Environmental Protection Act 1990.

Environmental Protection (EPA) Act 1990 and the affects of section 33 and 34 and legal disposal of waste

Duty of Care Regulations - Section 33 and 34

The Act enables people or authorities to take legal action against anyone who fails to ensure safe disposal,
storage, carriage or treatment of waste

Refer to web site.

R134a will change state to a vapour (boil) at - 26°C at atmospheric pressure!

This will freeze the skin and cause severe frostbite!

Only use gloves that are made from Flouroelastomer!

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
PPE (Personal Protection Equipment).

Assessor

Stuart Ramsbottom

Introduction and Recap on Air conditioning system

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Equipment familiarisation.

Observe health and safety at all times

Correct PPE must be worn at all times

Identify system refrigerant

Carry out A/C recovery and re charge

Answer some basic questions

Manual procedure only to be used on the A/C machines

A/C machine refrigerant lines must be recovered.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Practical assessment 2.

Observe health and safety at all times

Correct PPE must be worn at all times

Recover refrigerant from bottle to bottle utilising the A/C machine

Approximately 300 grams

A/C machine refrigerant lines must be recovered.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Practical assessment 1.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Change of state.

If a change of state is to take place, there must be a transfer of heat

Liquid to a gas, heat is taken on




Gas to a liquid, heat is given off.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Pressure.

Example
An increase in pressure of ‘5’ Bar will raise the boiling point of water by ‘52ºC’

A decrease in gauge pressure of ‘– 1.006’ Bar will lower the boiling point of water by ‘95.6ºC’

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Pressure.

If the pressure was decreased what would be the boiling point of water ???

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Pressure.

At atmospheric pressure water will boil at what temperature ???



IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Temperature.

Heat
Heat is the total amount of energy possessed by the molecules in a piece of matter

Temperature
Is a number that relates to one type of energy possessed by the molecules of a substance

Sensible heat
The heat energy that causes a change in temperature of a substance but does not contribute to a change in state

Latent heat
The amount of energy released or absorbed by a chemical substance during a change of state.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Humidity.

Saturation point
The point where a gaseous mixture can no longer take any more water vapour

Condensation
The point where a gaseous mixture cools and a change of state occurs to produce a liquid

Humidity is measured in grams per cubic metre.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit.

Refrigerant hoses

Connection medium for the air conditioning system

Made from reinforced woven nylon and rubber which is not susceptible to chemical degradation

Different hose structure for R12 and R134a.


IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

Evaporator

Cools, dries and cleans incoming air

Refrigerant changes state to a gas

The gas absorbs the heat from the incoming ambient air.

Fixed orifice tube

Separation of the high and low circuits

Fixed metering device.


IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

TXV expansion valve

Separation of the high and low pressure circuits

Regulates the quantity of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator

Regulated by the returning refrigerant pressure and temperature.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

Drier

Refrigerant reservoir

Dries the refrigerant

Replacement
System open longer than 24 hours
System empty due to a leak
Dirt in the refrigerant.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

Condenser

Cooling of refrigerant

Change of state, gas to a liquid

Aux fan for improved cooling.

Play Video Sign

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

Compressor

Circulates refrigerant

Increases pressure and temperature of the refrigerant.


IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH.
Workshop exercise.

Refrigerant storage and transportation
Store and transport upright out of direct sunlight
Always refit the sealing cap
Avoid extremely low temperatures frost for example
Keep the cylinders in original packaging
Visually inspect cylinders for fitness of use
Cylinders should be properly secured
Label vehicles whilst transporting.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Health and safety.

First aid
If contaminated with refrigerant remove all clothing and rinse with water, seek medical advise

If eyes are contaminated with refrigerant rinse with water, seek medical advise

If large quantities of refrigerant are inhaled seek fresh air

If there is no breathing perform CPR.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Health and safety.

No naked flames (Although R134a is not readily combustible it will burn at 93 °C creating a toxic gas)

Avoid laying on the floor (Refrigerant is heavier than air)

Vehicles being placed in ovens reaching above 80°C should have the refrigerant recovered.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Health and safety.

Always wear the appropriate PPE (Personal Protection Equipment)

Avoid contact with the skin (Frostbite)

Work in a well ventilated area.


IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Health and safety.

Always wear suitable PPE whilst handling refrigerant.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
PPE (Personal Protection Equipment).

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
R134a Refrigerant.

R134a – Tetraflouroethane
Used since 1995

HFC – Hydroflurocarbon (Adds to the Greenhouse affect)

Hygroscopic

Takes up to 13 yrs to degrade when released into the atmosphere

GWP (Global Warming Potential) 1300

Up to a £10,000 fine for knowingly releasing into the atmosphere.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
R12 Refrigerant.

R12 – Dichlorodifluoromethane
Illegal to vent into the atmosphere 1993

Replaced by R134a from 1995 (R12 Production stopped)

Illegal to service from 2000 (Conversion to refrigerant R134a by specialists)

CFC – Chlorofluorocarbon (Ozone depleting)

Takes up to 100 yrs to degrade when released into the atmosphere
This will affect the GWP (Global Warming Potential)

Unlimited fine and up to 4 years imprisonment for knowingly releasing into the atmosphere.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Enviromental impact.

The Greenhouse affect

Global warming
Reflection of heat from the earth.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Enviromental impact.

Ozone depletion

Hole over the Antarctic!!
Reduction in protection from the suns harmful UV rays.

The manufacture of disposable refrigerant cylinders is now illegal from 4th July 2007

Legislation states from 15th February 2008 a mandatory minimum qualification for handling of Greenhouse damaging substances

Technicians with In house training, A/C equipment provider training, BMW Climate Control Course etc could service A/C systems.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
F Gas regulations to date.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
The Kyoto Protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol

December 1997

Came into affect on 16th February 2005


Requires countries to cut greenhouse gases (A group of 6 gases including HFC’s) by 5.2% by 2012


R134a (HFC) being one of these gases.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Montreal Protocol.

Montreal Protocol

Came into affect on 16th September 1987


Worldwide agreement to phase out CFC’s by 2000


Some exceptions for third world countries.



Awarding body IMI

Lifetime qualification in refrigerant handling.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Qualification.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
F Gas qualification overview.

F Gas regulations

Key discussions / commitments and dates

Refrigerants

Health and safety including PPE (Personal Protection Equipment)

Fundamentals of air conditioning

Refrigerant circuit and components

Refrigerant recovery training

Online and practical assessments.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH.
F Gas regulations.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Pressure.

Gauge pressure

This pressure gauge is manipulated to read ‘0’ Bar when open to the atmosphere

Actual value should be approx ‘1’ Bar, which is atmospheric pressure

Absolute zero ‘0’ Bar

Where no pressure exists (Vacuum)

This gauge would read ‘-1’ Bar.



IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Humidity.

Relative humidity
The amount of water vapour that exists in a gaseous mixture of air and water

Absolute humidity
The quantity of water in a particular volume of air

Specific humidity
The ratio of water vapour to air in a particular mass.




Expansion Valve

Ventilation Blower

Evaporator

High Pressure Service Connection

Filter Drier

Pressure Switch

Condenser Fan

Condenser

Compressor Clutch

Compressor

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH
Refrigerant Circuit Components

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Refrigerant circuit components.

Drier

Integral drier

Component part of the condenser

Replacement.

COSHH (Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health)

COSHH covers chemicals, products containing chemicals
, fumes, dusts, vapours, mists and gases, and biological agents (germs). If the packaging has any of the hazard symbols then it is classed as a hazardous substance

COSHH also covers asphyxiating gases

Carry out risk assessment (Refer to web site).

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Health and safety.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
Global Warming Potential (GWP).

Global warming potential (GWP)

Index that relates to the potency of a greenhouse gas to that of carbon dioxide

Each gas is given a GWP number by this calculation.
On its own, GWP cannot describe the climate impact


R134a GWP of 1300.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
MAC Directive .

MAC (Mobile Air Conditioning) directive 5th January 2010 regarding type approval

The maximum allowable leakage rates, for any system using a refrigerant with a GWP (Global Warming Potential) higher than 150 are:

40 grams per year for a single evaporator system
60 grams per year for a dual evaporator system.

Legislation states from 4th July 2008 that anyone new to air conditioning will need to have passed an approved training course or assessment

Technicians working with air conditioning systems must be qualified in refrigerant handling by 4th July 2010.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
F Gas regulations to date.

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH .
F Gas regulations.

REGULATION (EC) No 842/2006 and Annex (EC307 – 2008) OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL.

The objective of the regulation is to contain, prevent leakage and thereby reduce emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol.


Expansion Valve

Ventilation Blower

Evaporator

High Pressure Service Connection

Filter Drier

Pressure Switch

Condenser Fan

Condenser

Compressor Clutch

Compressor

IMIA Level 3 Award in ARH
Refrigerant Circuit Components

.
When an Air conditioning system (fitted with an expansion valve) is operating correctly, in which state is the refrigerant between the evaporator and the compressor?

(a) Low pressure liquid.
(b) High pressure liquid.
(c) Low pressure vapour.
(d) High pressure vapour.

When an Air conditioning system is operating correctly, in which state is the refrigerant between the condenser and the orifice tube?
(a) Low pressure liquid.
(b) High pressure liquid.
(c) High pressure vapour.
(d) Low pressure vaporised liquid.

In order to dispose of refrigerant, what must be obtained:
(a) COSHH file
(b) Environmental protection act documentation
(c) Waste transfer note
(d) Material safety data sheet

What is the GWP of Refrigerant 134a over 100 years?
(a) 13.
(b) 135.
(c) 1000.
(d) 1300.

Which of the following characteristics is applicable to Refrigerant 134a?
(a) R134a contributes towards the Greenhouse effect
(b) . R134a depletes the ozone layer.
(c) R134a will not absorb moisture.
(d) R134a is non-toxic.

A 1989 manufactured vehicle fitted with an Air Conditioning system that contains R12 refrigerant can usually be identified by?
(a) The diameter size of the flexible hoses.
(b) The size of the compressor.
(c) The screw type flare service connections.
(d) The quick release type service connectors.


The minimum personal protection equipment (PPE) required when working on an air conditioning system:
(a) Refrigerant proof shoes.
(b) Refrigerant proof safety helmet.
(c) Protective gloves of the correct material/specification.
(d) Thermal gloves.

Heat is transferred:
(a) None of the statements listed are correct.
(b) From The cooler to the hotter substance.
(c) Only when the pressure of the atmosphere changes.
(d) From The hotter to the cooler substance.


Refrigerant at a high pressure will:
(a) Lower the boiling point.
(b) Lower the humidity point.
(c) . Not affect the boiling point.
(d) Increase the boiling point

What does the abbreviation GWP stand for?
(a) General Warming Potential.
(b) Global Warming Pressure.
(c) Global Warming Potential.
(d) General Warning Point.

What injury could result if refrigerant comes into contact with the skin?

(a) Dermatitis.
(b) Scalding of the skin / hot burn.
(c) Frostbite / cold burn.
(d) Nothing as the refrigerant will be at normal room temperature.

What are the environmental impacts of fluorinated greenhouse gases?
(a) Contribute Acid rain.
(b) Contribute to global warming.
(c) Produce oxides of nitrogen.
(d) Produce fluorinated isotopes that destroy the ozone layer.

What procedure is performed to determine if an AC system contains refrigerant?
(a) Release an AC connector and listen for hiss.
(b) Connect gauges and check for positive pressure.
(c) Check by releasing refrigerant at the high pressure port.
(d) Check the temperature of the hoses as the AC system is switched on.

Greenhouse gases with a GWP higher than?
(a) 1250.
(b) 150.
(c) 1300.
(d) 140.

The basic provision of regulation EC842/2006 describe the prevention and minimisation of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases and states that personnel recovering or handling refrigerant must have a refrigerant handling certificate by:
(a) July 2010.
(b) January 2010.
(c) July 2008.
(d) July 2009.

From 1st January 2009 vehicle type approval will not be granted to vehicles fitted with an AC system designed to contain R134a unless the leakage rate is?
(a) 20 grams per year for a single evaporator system or 90 grams for a dual evaporator.
(b) 40 grams per year for a single evaporator system or 60 grams for a dual evaporator.
(c) 40 grams per year for a dual evaporator system or 60 grams for a single evaporator.
(d) 100 grams per year for a single evaporator system or 50 grams for a dual evaporator.

What type of service connectors are fitted to AC systems filled with R134a?
(a) The quick release type service connectors.
(b) The connection type will vary depending on the vehicle manufacturer.
(c) Screw type flare on the high pressure and quick connection type on the low pressure.
(d) Screw type flare service connections.


The maximum fill weight for a virgin refrigerant cylinder is identified on the cylinder. What percentage of this must the maximum fill weight be reduced by when using the cylinder to recover refrigerant?
(a) 50%
(b) 5%
(c) 10%
(d) 25%

Which items of Personal Protection Equipment will the technician need to wear when connecting an Air Conditioning service centre to a vehicle AC system?
(a) All of the answers.
(b) Safety glasses and gloves made from latex.
(c) Goggles and protective gloves made from fluoroelastomer.
(d) Protective clothing only.

When recovering refrigerant from an AC system, to minimise the amount of oil recovered, the preferable method is to:
(a) recover from the high side pressure port.
(b) all of the answers.
(c) recover from the high and low side pressure port together.
(d) recover from the low side pressure port.

Which type of gloves should a technician wear when connecting an Air Conditioning service centre to a vehicle AC system? Protective gloves made from:
(a) Cotton.
(b) Latex.
(c) Rubber.
(d) Fluoroelastomer.


Which agreement in December 1997 was designed to reduce the emissions that affect the worlds climate?
(a) Kyoto
(b) European
(c) G7
(d) Montreal

In relation to the legal requirements affecting companies, what is the meaning of the abbreviation COSHH?
(a) company obligations & systems for health & hazards
(b) company organised systems for health & hazards
(c) control of substances hazardous to health
(d) control of systems hazardous to health



What action should a technician take if refrigerant leaks from an Air Conditioning system?
(a) Check for excessive build up of refrigerant in the workshop with aninfra red lamp.
(b) Remove all protective clothing as this will become contaminated with refrigerant.
(c) Ensure that the workshop is well ventilated.
(d) Close all of the workshop doors to limit the refrigerant escaping into the atmosphere.



When an Air Conditioning system has knowingly been contaminated with another refrigerant, what should the technician do?
(a) Ensure that all workshop personnel are wearing Personal Protection Equipment.
(b) Notify the Department of Trade and Industry immediately.
(c) Have the refrigerant removed and stored in a separate container and mark the container Contaminated Refrigerant.
(d) The Air Conditioning service centre will filter out all of the contaminates during the recovery of the refrigerant.

What is the purpose for ensuring that a constant vacuum exists when evacuating an Air Conditioning system?
(a) To ensure that all the moisture present in the system has been evaporated/removed.
(b) To allow the technician to check for system leaks.
(c) All of the answers.
(d) Removing all of the lubricating oil from the compressor.


Under which conditions below, may you be required to recover the refrigerant in a vehicle AC system?
(a) Before the vehicle is placed in a bake oven.
(b) Before the engine coolant water pump is replaced.
(c) Before the engine cylinder head is replaced.
(d) Before the vehicles fuel tank is replaced.

At normal atmospheric pressure, the boiling point of R134a is:
(a) +100 C
(b) +26.3 C
(c) 0 C
(d) -26.3 C

Which of the following characteristics is applicable to Refrigerant R12?
(a) R12 depletes the ozone layer.
(b) R12 will not absorb moisture.
(c) R12 is lighter than air.
(d) R12 attacks metal and rubber.

In which state can R134a be safely stored?
(a) Under no pressure as a liquid/vapour.
(b) Under no pressure as a gas.
(c) Under pressure as a liquid.
(d) Under pressure as a liquid/vapour.
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