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Animals

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Mackenzie Coulthard

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Animals

Animals
Chapters 32, 33, 34, 40
Characteristics
Multicellular (with no cell walls)
Heterotrophic, meaning that is uses carbon for growth and ingests organic molecules
Eukaryotes
Animals differ from plants and fungi because...
a) Plants are autotrophic eukaryotes
b) Fungi are heterotrophs that grow on or near food outside of their bodies.
c) Animals cannot construct their own organic molecules, ingesting them instead.
d) Animals eat living or nonliving organisms.
Development of Animals
Formed by a sperm fertilizing an egg. Undergoes mitotic cell divisions called cleavage.
Cleavage
Cleavage results in this stage, resulting in eight cells. Cells begin to adhere, known as compaction. Cells can be removed from this for genetic testing.
Cleavage
Multicellular stage, a hollow ball. It contains an inner cell mass that will eventually form the fetus structure and embryonic tissues.
Rearrangement of the embryo where one end folds inwards, expands, and fills the blastocel, producing layers of embryonic tissues.
Blastula reformed into 3 layers. Differentiates cells into three types (endodermal, mesodermal, ectodermal) The archenteron opens to the outside.
Animal Phyla
An animal's size and shape have a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy/materials with its surroundings
Darwin's idea of survival of the fittest compares with animals and their complex body forms having distinct benefits.
Examples of characteristics involved with the environment
Blending in with the environment to protect against predators
Large muscles for rapid movement
Gills to breathe in water
Organ systems maintaining an internal stable environment
(homeostasis....)
Homeostasis
Thermoregulation
is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range. Each species has its own optimal range.
"Steady State"
Animals are
regulators
by moderating internal change because of external fluctuation.
Animals are
conformers
because they allow their internal condition to vary with external changes.
Fish are able to maintain a stable internal concentration of solutes in their blood and interstitial fluid, even though their solute concentration is different from the water's concentration
I'm Nemo!
Spider crabs live in environments where the solute concentration is relatively stable. Unlike other fishes, the crab does not regulate its internal solute concentration, but conforms to the external environment.
Sup Nemo?!
9 Phylums of the Animal Kingdom
PORIFERA
Sponges
Multicellular
Bodies full of pores and channels allowing water to circulate through them, consisting of jelly-like mesohyl between two thin layers of cells
Unspecialized cells can tranform any type of cell needed.
Do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems. Maintain self by keeping water flow throughout their body. (oxygen & food obtained, waste removed)
CNIDARIA
10,000 species in aquatic or marine enviornments
Cnidocytes, specialized cells that they use mainly for capturing prey
Bodies made up of mesoglea and 2 layes of epithelium, contain orfice & body cavity for digestion and respiration
Some Species produce colonies of zooid, some produce asexually aswell.
Will sometimes obtain nutrients from endosymbiotic algae
PLATYHELMINTHES
Flatworms
Simple, bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates
Have no body cavity & no distinct circulatory or respiratory organs--> Flat bodies are for oxygen & nutrients pass through diffusion
There are some
parasitic
and
non-parasitic
Cestoda, Trematoda, & Monogenea
Turbellaria
NEMOTODA
Live in a widespread group of ecosystems
Roundworms
Colorless, unsegmented, and lacking appendages
Free-living, predaceous, or parasitic (cause most diseases)
25,000 species, half of which are parasitic
Tubular digestive system
ANNELIDA
Marine enviornments
Biolateral Symmetry
Use parapodia for locomotion
2 piece segmented worms, which a septa seperates tthe two parts, and with complicated structures blood circulates through all of them
Asexually reproduction is used to fix severe injuries, but reproduce sexually
17,000 modern species including Ragworms, earthworms and leeches
MOLLUSCA
Invertebrates
85,000 species
Largest Marine Phylum
Highly diverse in size, structure & behavior
Split into 10 taxonomic groups- 2 of which are entirely exstinct
3 Distant features of Mollusca
>Mantle with Cavity for breathing & excretion
>Presence of a radula
>Structure of nervous system
Single muscular "foot" under main body cavity through which blood circulates
Eats using a rapid tongue, the radula, and a complex digestive system in which exuded mucus and microscopic & help of cilia
two paired nerve cords, the brain ( some species) encircles the esophagus
most have eyes, all have sensors to detect chemicals, vibrations, and touch
Simplest reproductive process is external fertilization, but more complex variations can occur. All produce eggs, resulting larvae or miniature adults
ARTHROPODA
invertebrate with an exoskeleton, segmented body, and jointed appendages
"Jointed leg"
Insects, arachnids, and crustaceans
jointed limbs are made of chitin
Rigid cuticle inhabitants growth, so arthropods replace it by moulting
1,000,000 SPECIES, 80% OF ANIMAL KINGDOM
Internal cavity is called a hemocel contains internal organs & continuous circulatory system
Nervous system is ladder like and brain is formed through fusion of nerve cell cluster and is wrapped around the esophagus
Land species use internal fertilization, aquatic species internal or external fertilization, all lay eggs
ECHINODAMATA
Marine Animals
Adults popular for their 5 point symmatry
Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and sand dollars
7,000 living species
Found in ocean depth, not freshwater
Remarkable power to regenerate tissues, organs, limbs and asexual reproduction is the tool for this sometimes replacing complete limbs.
Their ossified skeleton can sometimes be evidence for geological enviornments, and make up limestone formations
CHORDATA
possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail for at least some period of their life cycles.
The phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata, including mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds
75,000 living species
With few exceptions, chordates are active animals with bilaterally symmetric bodies that are longitudinally differentiated into head, trunk and tail
Humans, blue whale, iguana, or falcon
Types of Tissue,TheirStructures & Function
STRUCTURE IS IN CORRESPONDENCE TO THE TISSUE'S FUNCTION
MADE OF CELLS WITH THE SAME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN LAYERS SPECIFIC TO THEIR TYPE
4 TYPES INCLUDE;
1. EPITHELIAL
2. CONNECTIVE
3. MUSCLE
4. NERVOUS
1
2
3
4
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Tightly packed
covers outside of body, lines organs and cavities.
Helps as a barrier against mechanical injury, microbes and fluid loss.
There is one type of Epithelial tissue that is known for absorbing or secreting chemical solutions that is Glandular epithelial

STRUCTURE & SHAPE

SIMPLE Epithelium
-single layer
STRATIFIED Epithelium
-multiple tiers of cells
Cubodial
(dice like)
Columnar
(bricks on end)

Squamous
(floor tiles)
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
functioned to bind and support other tissues
tightly packed, with a sparse population cells scattered through an extracellular
matrix
-made up of a web of fibers embedded in a uniform foundation that may be jellylike, solid or liquid.
Fibers made up of proteins, which there are three types that can be found
I. Collagenous
Most abundant in Animal Kingdom
Non-elastic, dont tear when pulled
EX. When you pull the back of your hand, collagen keeps your flesh from tearing
II. Elastic
long threads made up of elastin
Rubber quality
EX. Release the skin you have pulled, and skin goes back to its original shape
III. Recticular
Thin and branched, tightly woven
Composed of collagen and collagenous fibers
Joins connective and adjacent fibers

FIBROBLASTS (secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers)
MACROPHAGES ( amoeboid cells that roam the maze of fibers, engulf foreign particle through phagocytosis)
MUSCLE TISSUE
Composed of long cells called muscle fibers , capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve signals
Myosfibrils (contracting units)
contain proteins actin and myosin
3 types in vertebrates;
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
NERVOUS TISSUE
Senses stimuli & transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to the other
Functional unit is the NEURON or nerve cell
Nervous tissue concentrated in brain contributes to control of animal's activities
ORGANS
&
ORGAN SYSTEMS
IN ANIMALS
All animals except sponges and some cnidarians have different tissues organized into organs, to which they are arranged into layers
Organs of vertebrates are suspended of connective tissue called mesenteries in moist body cavities
In Mammals the thoracic cavity houses the lungs and heart which the connective tissue hangs over the diaphragm or abdominal cavity

ORGANS
ORGAN SYSTEMS
Collection of organs that carry out a major body function
Each system has their own specific function, but join together to help the animal's survival

Digestive system absorbs nutrients, go to blood stream, heart pumps blood with nutrients and oxygen from respiratory system
NERVOUS SYSTEM
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM
DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM
EXCRETORY
SYSTEM
RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
IMMUNE & LYMPHATIC
SYSTEM
ENDOCRINE
SYSTEM
REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM
SKELETAL
SYSTEM
MUSCULAR
SYSTEM

Internal distributions
of materials

Food processing
mouth,pharynx,esophagus, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus
Lungs,trachea, breathing tubes
Gas exchange
bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, WBC

Body defense
Body support, protection
of organs, movement
skeleton (bones, tendons, ligaments,
cartilage)
Movement &
locomotion
skeletal muscles
ovaries, testes

Reproduction
Coordination of
body activities
Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, hormone
-secreting glands
Disposal of metabolic
waste, regulation of
osmotic balance of blood
kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra etc
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
Coordination of body
activites, detection of
stimuli and formulation
Protection against
mechanical injury,
infection, thermoregulation
skin, hair, glands
heart blood vessels, blood
ANY QUESTIONS?
Ms. Kent
Ms. Chamberlin
Ms. Coulthard
BIOENERGETICS
Flow of energy through an organism
Limits the animal's behavior, growth and reproduction and determines how much food it needs
Food is digested by enzymatic hydrolysis, & food molecules containing energy are absorbed by body cells

Food molecules are used to generate ATP by the catabolic processes of cellular respiration and fermentation

The chemical energy of ATP powers cellular work, enabling cells, organs, and organ systems to perform the many functions that keep an animal alive

Production and use of ATP generates heat


After needs of staying alive are met, any remaining food molecules can be used in
biosynthesis
body growth and repair; synthesis of storage material such as fat; and production of
reproductive structures, including gametes

METABOLIC RATE
the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
This can be viewed by measuring the amount of heat an animal gives off

ENDOTHERMIC
ECTOTHERMIC
maintain their body temperature within a narrow range by
heat generated by metabolism.
permits intense, long-duration activity of a wide range of environmental temperatures.
gain their heat mostly from external sources.
The ectothermic strategy requires much less energy than is needed by endotherms, because of the energy cost of heating (or cooling) an endothermic body.
Full transcript