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Graduation Project

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by

karim abbady

on 5 July 2013

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Transcript of Graduation Project

M
ETHANOL

INTRODUCTION
Running out of fuel
Fuel Injection Systems
Lab Preparations
1-The Dynamometer preparations.
2-The Engine and its fixation.
3-ECU isolation.
4-Radiator installing.
5-The Temperature indicator installing.
6-The Venturi installing.
7-The Fuel system installing.
8-The Emission analyzer preparing. 
9-The Tacho-meter.

GASOLINE
ENGINES

Supervised By
Prof.Dr.Mohamed El Kassaby
Effect on
AGENDA
Introduction
in Spark ignition engine
(SPE)
1.a-
K-Jetronic
1.b-
L-Jetronic
1.c-
Motronic
2-
GDI
Effect Of World Fossil Fuel Crisis:-
1-Economic Crisis "price shock"
2-Energy crisis
3-Agricultural effects and population limits


The oil reserve
:-43 years
Alternative fuel:-

1-Ethanol (or Bio-ethanol)
Derived from crops, ethanol can be used as a fuel either alone in a special engine or as an additive to gasoline .
3-Methanol
It is very easy to manufacture it from methane.
highly toxic product & it is volatile
- what is it ?
- how can we recognize it ?
air flow meter
&
fuel ditributor
The Dynamometer preparations
Engine fixation and coupling
E.C.U isolation

Radiator installing

Tempثerature indicator

Venturهi system setup

Fuel system setup

Mechanical tachometer

Emission analyzer

Two Fans for the Radiator

air flow sensor
Fuel Injection Systems

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption

BSFC
Experimental Results
Brake
Thermal Efficiency
BTE
15 % Methanol is The Biggest Value
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
calorific Value Of Methanol is 22.70 MJ/kg
Calorific Value Of Gasoline is 44 Mj/Kg
For Same Brake Power Output
Mass Flow Rate

Increase
Brake Thermal Efficiency
Of 15 % Methanol is Lowest Value
- what is GDI ?
No combustion
-Electric
-Solar cell cars
Our Goal
clean air
Save Money
Better efficiency
This can be achieved by:-
1-using another renewable source
2-search for how to increase efficiency and lowering cost
3-Using of environmentally friendly materials
Methanol and Ethanol
Lab Preparation
Experimental Data
Conclusion
Conclusion
ةMethanol and Ethanol
Methanol Blending
Octane Number
فTorque, Power & Thermal Efficiency
More Soft Combustion
Emission gases
Economic View
Peak Oil Theory
Hubbert’s theory
ٍSo:-
we must know...The injection ٍsystem which can run the ALTERNATIVE FUEL
air mass meter
Air Calculations
Fuel Calculations
Bioethanol

How is it made ?

Properties

C2H5OH + 3O2 --> 2CO2 + 3H2O

When ethanol combustion takes place a pale blue,
non luminous flame forms.

. The presence of oxygen within ethanol
(the O in the OH) leads to cleaner burning of
the fuel and less soot formation.

The Combustion of Ethanol


Worldwide Production

Rice straw and environmental impact


Bioethanol in Egypt

IF used in bioethanol production will protect environment

Rice Straw

Fewer emission
Exhaust gases of ethanol are much cleaner,
it burns more cleanly (more complete combustion)





Advantage of bioethanol

Disadvantage of Bioethanol

FOOD
VS
FUEL

Corn price Vs Bioethanol Production

Gasoline and water don’t mix
Phase Separation describes
what happens to gasoline containing Ethanol when water is present

Phase separation

COLD START

Dual fuel system

Including a small auxiliary fuel tank
that contains a volatile fuel blend for cold start




Current commercial solution

BLOCK HEATER
-The block heater is a heating element in the engine
-Heats the coolant to the optimal temperature
of about 90°C.

Current commercial solution

Ethanol direct injection (EDI)
High‐pressure start also enables better fuel atomization, also improving vaporization.
The highpressure option enables a much shorter injection time period and makes
it possible to inject at the end of th compression stroke

Current commercial solution

Venturi Standard Equation
Test Overview
Dynamic Viscosity Table
Coefficient of Discharge Calculations
4-Hydrogen
it is a clean energy that can be found everywhere
Δ Mass /Δ T
ΔT= 2min
ف
Test Condtions
Max Speed 2500 Rpm
Max Load 20 Lb
The Highest Methanol Concentration is 15 %
Max Brake Power 13.29 Kw= 17.83 hp
Ambient Temperature =25 ºC
Peak Oil Theory
Hubbert’s theory
How does it work ?
air flow sensor
Air Mass Flow (AMF)
How does it work?
2-Butanol
It can be produced by fermentation of biomass. It better tolerates water and is less corrosive than ethanol, which makes it more suitable for distribution through existing gasoline pipelines.
How it works ?
Experiments

Project steps:-

Alternative
fuel

MPI

GDI

Lab preparations

Density Of Methanol is
Higher
Than Density of Gasoline
Brake

Brake Specific Fuel
Consumption
Thermal Efficiency
Engine
Performance
Thank You
1-Port Fuel Injetion (PFI)
a- K-Jetronic
b- L-Jertonic
c- Motronic
2-Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)
specifications of GDI
How to recognize it ?
Methanol

Alternative fuel

Peak Oil is approaching or already passed.
Oil market is becoming more and more volatile.
Need for immediate change without an infrastructure
overhaul.
Slow down greenhouse gas emission.

Search for Alternative Fuels

Methanol as a fuel

The production of methanol in Egypt from natural gas
The capacity of the methanol plant is 3600 MTPD

Methanol production in Egypt

Process flow diagram

Methanol life cycle

Methanol is more corrosive than gasoline so parts that come into contact with methanol must be able
to withstand its corrosive ability.

because the air to fuel mixture is richer than gasoline, a given volume of gasoline will take you about 70% farther than the same sized tank of methanol

Methanol disadvantages

New technology for using methanol

The effect of Water/Methanol Systems for Gasoline Engines

Top piston designs
High pressure pump
Modes of operation
Advantages
Disadvantages
Full transcript