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Recombinant DNA Technology

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Sean Denroche

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Recombinant DNA Technology

Somatropin/Hgh Produced by Recombinant DNA (rDNA) Technology Recombinant DNA Technology Somatropin How has this biotechnology impacted our world? An Ethical Dilemma Career Opportunities Thank you! I hope you learned a lot about Recombinant DNA Technology and Somatropin! Recombinant DNA is an artificial form of DNA that is created by a combination of two or more strands of DNA that would not occur together in regular circumstances. Recombinant DNA Technology is the technology behind what we refer to as recombinant DNA. In a nutshell, this technology consists of cutting up fragments of DNA strands and combining them with other strands of DNA The first publications describing a successful production of recombinant DNA were released in 1972 and 1973. Stanford University was awarded a US Patent in 1980, claiming the inventors to be Herbert W. Boyer and Stanley N. Cohen. This process of Recombinant DNA Technology can be broken down into steps. Some key words to keep in mind include: Transformation: process of inserting foreign DNA into a host cell Plasmid: a circular DNA molecular found in bacteria Restriction Enzyme: used to isolate a gene from DNA Ligase: enzyme that is used to do the "linking" of DNA DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, is what determines the development and function of an organism. One segment of DNA is responsible for specific character traits, otherwise known as genes. DNA Gene The first step, in this process called Recombinant DNA Technology, is isolating the gene in question. Methods of this isolation include breaking cells open, and then using enzymes to weaken the cell walls and membranes. These enzymes also break down the nuclear membranes, allowing DNA to be set free. These enzymes used to isolate genes are referred to as Restriction Enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences of nucleotides. These specific sequences are recognized as the sequences of bases and are known as the enzyme's "recognition sites" Fun Facts about Resctriction Enzymes! Restriction Enzymes were discovered by a fellow by the name of Werner Arber. In the 1960's Arber and his colleagues discovered that there were certain enzymes in bacteria that were preventing the growth of infecting phages. These enzymes did so by cutting up the viral DNA! It was later discovered that the viral DNA was getting cut at specific sequences (recognition sites).
This was a breakthrough in the development of recombinant DNA. When restriction enzymes produce their cuts, they will either produce a straight cut or a staggered cut. Straight cuts produce more blunt ends, while staggered cuts produce sticky ends. Isolating a Gene - Restriction Enzymes Plasmids Plasmids are small lengths of bacterial DNA, formed in a circular loop. They can easily be inserted into bacteria and are therefore used to transport foreign DNA into cells. With the introduction of plasmids comes the return of the restriction enzymes. Just like with the strand of DNA, the same restriction enzyme is used cut open the plasmid loop. The fragment of DNA that was earlier cut, is then able to be inserted into the plasmid. Because the same restriction enzyme was used, the sticky ends of the plasmid and DNA match up.
This join is later made permanent by DNA Ligase. plasmid restriction enzyme modified cut open plasmid plasmid Transformation This is the process where the DNA transporting plasmids are inserted into a bacterial cell. There are several key steps to this procedure: - The bacteria and the plasmids are mixed together in a solution containing calcium chloride. This causes the cell wall of the bacteria to become more permeable. Plasmids can then pass through into the cytoplasm. - Only a small amount of bacteria will actually take up the plasmids. To make this process more efficient, it's important to know which cells actually carry plasmids, and the gene in question. To do this, an antibiotic resistance gene is also inserted into the plasmids. Doing this allows for a selection of only the bacteria carrying the gene in question. What happens is that an antibiotic is added to the solution. This antibiotic kills any bacterial cells that do not contain a resistance gene, in other words, the cells that did not take up the plasmids. This leaves us only with the bacterial cells containing the desired gene. -DNA Synthesizing machinery is then used to replicate these plasmids. In appropriate conditions, each cell should be able to produce over 200 copies of the plasmid, and ultimately, the gene in question. modified cut open plasmid desired gene plasmid containing desired gene plasmid desired gene antibiotic resistance gene bacterial cell As you can see in this diagram, the transformed cell contains the plasmid, while the non-transformed does not. This plasmid contains the desired gene as well as an antibiotic resistance gene.
In this example, ampicillin is used as the antibiotic and is mixed in with the calcium chloride solution. Somatropin is one of the most highly pursued hormonal compounds in the world. Somatropin is the official name for what is often referred to as Hgh. Somatropin is the name used for the synthetic version of Hgh, produced by the earlier described recombinant DNA technology.
Once present in the body, it performs the same way as natural Hgh would perform. Using somatropin as a supplement provides many benefits such as:
-muscle growth
-increased recovery time
-muscle, joint and bone repair
-improved focus and clarity of thought
-increased energy Synthesis of Hgh Hgh is made up of 191 amino acids It is synthesized into two fragments, which are later bonded together. These fragments are broken at amino acids 23 and 24.
Fragment #1- 1-23/24 amino acids
Fragment #2- 23/24-191 amino acids Recombinant DNA Technology is a technology that benefits our world in many ways. Whether it be in terms of medicine or agriculture, this technology is helping make our world a better place. Medicinal rDNA Technology has been revolutionary in the world of medicine, bringing in new methods of treating diseases. A vaccine is a biological substance which is prepared using weak or dead pathogenic cells. Vaccines are injected into the body to produce antibodies to fight a particular antigen. The development of new tests used to diagnosis many diseases has also become possible, courtesy of rDNA technology. The technology allows for certain pathogens to be isolated and identified. An earlier diagnosis allows for quicker treatment which can be key to a patients recovery As explained earlier, human growth hormones, somatropin in particular, have become a big part of many people's lives. These hormones, produced by rDNA technology, are responsible for the growth, reproduction and regeneration of cells in the body. They are also used to treat dwarfism! Agriculture rDNA technology is frequently used in agriculture as it allows us to create genetically-modified organisms whcich can ultimately produce genetically modified crops Many genetically modified crops are resistant to herbicides. The insertion of a herbicide-resistant bacterial gene into the DNA of the plant is what makes this possible. Because of this, farmers are able to achieve an increased yield of these crops In many genetically modified corn and cotton plants, the insertion of a toxin-producing gene occurs. This gene allows plants to produce a toxin and kill insects themselves. This means that less insecticide is necessary and the plants are more resistant to disease.
The Bt gene is frequently used for this. rDNA technology is considered to be one of the great up and coming technologies and has already been seen to benefit our world in many ways. However, nothing is perfect, and there are some aspects of this technology that leave scientists a little concerned. One of the main concerns regarding rDNA in agriculture is how it will affect the long term future of humans. It is unknown if inserting the foreign genes into plant genomes can be harmful or fatal to us humans. However, if this is the case, the risk of it spreading is almost uncontrollable. These cells could, in fact, be dangerous and with the uncontrollable spreading through grass or pollination, the risk of eating harmful, mutated cells becomes a concern. As a result, scientists need to be really careful when creating rDNA for they must keep it within controlled areas. From a social standpoint, another concern has been brought up by physicist Stephen Hawking. He feels that the recent progress in recombinant DNA technology is bringing an end to natural evolution, due to the fact that we are able to create and develop our own custom genetic makeups. It's probably pretty evident now, that Recombinant DNA Technology is an up and coming technology that is changing the way we live our lives for the better. Research in rDNA is a challenging field to work in, but it holds great potential for the future. As progress is made towards the development of this technology, the ability to prevent genetic diseases, producing new medicines and vaccines and providing patients with less toxic pharmaceuticals will only become more enhanced. In the same token, newer and better ways to optimize plant yields will increase as well. A career in biotechnology offers many different positions. These positions could include simple research, development of the process, production, quality control or technical sales. People of the problem solving type would be well suited for this type of work. Many high schools have begun to introduce biotechnology courses. Courses such as these, combined with the usual mathematics, biology, physics and chemsitry, can go a long way in securing the opportunity of a long lasting career. The sky is the limit for new technologies such a Recombinant DNA, and with this comes limitless job opportunities. Sean Denroche presents Approved by The International Union of Biological Science restriction enzyme fragments of DNA gene video! Bibliography -- The Biochemical Society. "Recombinant DNA Technology" http://www.biochemistry.org/portals/0/education/docs/basc07_full.pdf The Biochemical Society, London 1994

-- Ogunranti, J O. "RECOMBINANT DNA" http://www.oluwoleogunranti.com/Bsc/ogunranti/rdna.htm University of Jos.

-- Kuure-Kinsey, Matthew and McCooey, Beth. "Basics of Recombinant DNA" http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/Projects00/rdna/rdna.html Biochemical Engineering Fall 2000

-- Klose, Jana and Lampard, Greg. "Recombinant DNA Technology" http://www.bioteach.ubc.ca/TeachingResources/Applications/GMOpkgJKloseGLampard2.swf

-- Adnan, Amna. "Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology in Medicine" http://www.biotecharticles.com/Genetics-Article/Applications-of-Recombinant-DNA-Technology-in-Medicine-350.html 2010

-- Gomez, Marie and Jahangir, Hania. "DNA Recombinant and Application". http://biologyatking.blogspot.ca/2012/11/hey-watch-out-recombinant-dna-is-coming.html Nov 4 2012

-- Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, "Career Information". http://www.simhq.org/careers/career-information/ 2007

-- Steroid.com. "Somatropin" http://www.steroid.com/Somatropin.php 2000-2012

-- Innovateus. "What is Recombinant DNA Technology?" http://www.innovateus.net/innopedia/what-recombinant-dna-technology 2006-2011
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