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Background Into A Thousand Splendid Suns

Historical Background of 1000 Splendid Suns
by

Ryan Kuch

on 2 November 2015

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Transcript of Background Into A Thousand Splendid Suns

Background Into
A Thousand Splendid Suns

By Jenna, Emi, and Mary

Oh, the beautiful city of Kabul wears a rugged mountain skirt,
And The rose is jealous of its lash-like thorns.
The dust of Kabul's blowing soil smarts lightly in my eyes,
But I love her, for knowledge and love both come from her dust.


I sing bright praises to her colourful tulips,
The beauty of her trees makes me blush.
How sparkling the water flows from Pul-i-Mastaan!
May Allah protect such beauty from the evil eye of man!


Khizr chose Kabul to Paradise,
For her mountains brought him near to heaven's delights.
The fort's dragon-sprawling walls guard the city well,
Each brick is more precious than the treasure of Shayagan.


Every street in Kabul fascinates the eye.
In the bazaars, Egypt's caravans pass by.
No one can count the beauteous moons on her rooftops,
And hundreds of lovely suns hide behind her walls.


Her morning's laugh is as gay as flowers,
Her dark nights shine like beautiful hair.
Her tuneful nightingales sing with flame in their notes,
Fiery songs like burning leaves, fall from their throats.


I sing to the gardens, Jahanara and Shahrara.
Even the Tuba of Paradise is Jealous of their greenery.
Afghanistan consists of several independent ethnic groups that developed from years of war and migration.
Came into power in 1996
Was born out of the mujahideen who opposed the Soviet occupation
Majority of members of the Taliban were Pashtun
Lost power in 2001 after September 11 terrorist attacks
Implemented strict Islamic rules such as women being covered from head to toe,men growing their beards, and no music being allowed.
Ethnic Groups of Afghanistan
Geography of Afghanistan
A Timeline of Major Events
Location and Size
Located in Southern Asia
Slightly smaller than Texas
Earthquake-prone along mountain bases
Landlocked
Climate and Terrain
Cold winters, hot summers
Surrounded by Hindu Kush Mountains and low plains
Rivers form in mountain gorges from melted snow - flooding
Civilians reside in valleys
Three-fourths of the terrain is covered by mountains and hills.
Natural Resources and Environmental Issues
Abundance of natural gas, coal, copper, salt, precious stones
Limited freshwater supply
Drought/flood
Deforestation, desertification, air and water pollution
Only 20% of land suitable for farming
Once a land mine is lain, it may remain active for as long as fifty years
While a land mine can be manufactured for as little as $3, it takes as much as $1,000 to remove
Afghanistan has around 10 million mines
Since many were lain in fields, it is potentially hazardous for Afghans to farm
Many land mines were dropped during Soviet occupation of Afghanistan
December 1979
In 1978, the Soviets and Afghanistan signed a treaty allowing for Soviet intervention when requested. In December of 1979, the Soviet Red Army invaded Afghanistan by infiltrating Kabul disguised as Afghan soldiers. The Soviets then set up a Communist government.
1985-86
In 1985, mujahideen rebel groups came together to form an alliance against the Soviet rule. The CIA began assisting the mujahideen by sending them money, weapons, medical supplies, and communication equipment. In 1986, the mujahideen used Stringer missiles given to them by the CIA to shoot down Soviet helicopters.
KABUL
Works Cited
"Afghanistan Landmine Facts." Afghanistan Landmine Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct.
2012. <http://www.afghan-network.net/Landmines/>.

"Afghanistan." National Geographic. National Geographic Kids, 2012. Web. 04 Oct.
2012. <http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/places/find/afghanistan/>.

"Afghanistan Profile." BBC News. BBC,30 Sept. 2012. Web. 08 Oct. 2012.
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12024253>.

"Central Intelligence Agency." CIA. Central Intelligence Agency, 17 Sept. 2012. Web.
03 Oct. 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html>.

"Council on Foreign Relations." Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., n.d. Web. 05
Oct. 2012. <http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/taliban-afghanistan/p10551>.
Drawbaugh, Kevin, and Kim Dixon.

"Landmines: An Ongoing Environmental Health Problem for the Children of
Afghanistan." Journal of Rural and Remote Environmental Health (2003): n. pag. Print. Holland, Steve. "Romney to Draw

"Land-mines: A Deadly Inheritance." Land-mines: A Deadly Inheritance. N.p., n.d.
Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.unicef.org/graca/mines.htm>.

"Mujahideen Army." Stanford University. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012.
<http://www.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/3>.

PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2012.
<http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/asia/afghanistan/map_flash.html>.

"The Poem about Kabul." The Poem about Kabul. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2012.
<http://afghan-network.net/Culture/kabul_poem.html>.

"Taliban." - The New York Times. N.p., 05 Oct. 2012. Web. 05 Oct. 2012.
<http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/t/taliban/index.html>.

"Publications." Afghanistan â Central Intelligence Agency. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct.
2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/additional-publications/devotion-to-duty/afghanistan.html>.

"Water Profile of Afghanistan." Water Profile of Afghanistan. N.p., n.d. Web. 14
Oct. 2012. <http://www.eoearth.org/article/Water_profile_of_Afghanistan>.

"Afghan Bomb Strikes India Embassy." BBC News. BBC, 10 Aug. 2009. Web. 14 Oct. 2012.
<http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8296137.stm>.

Press, Associated. "Nato Takes Control of Afghanistan Peace Mission." The Guardian.
Guardian News and Media, 11 Aug. 2003. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/aug/11/afghanistan>.

"Jaunted." Jaunted. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012.
<http://www.jaunted.com/story/2009/5/16/14413/1654/travel/Bamiyan or Bust! Afghanistan Hopes to Lure Tourists with History, Peace>.
1988
Dangers and Barriers in Afghanistan
An Overview of Kabul
Physical Map of Afghanistan
The Soviet Union, Afghanistan, the United States, and Pakistan drew up an agreement to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. After signing, the Soviets withdrew after nine years of occupation.
the end
In 2008 36% of Afghanis were at or below the national poverty line
In 2010, it was found that the average worker brought in $426 a year
Only 23% of the population has access to safe drinking water
As of 2001, it was found that 31% of people above the age of fifteen are literate.
Half of the rural population can't afford to have a food intake of 2,100 calories a day.
Before the Taliban took power in 1996, women had job opportunities, could get an education, and had significant rights
Afghanistan has the second highest maternity death rate in the world (death related to childbirth)
When the Taliban came into power, they forced all women to quit their jobs

Soviets seized Kabul in 1979, and by 1980 established a Communist government to oversee the country
Soviets improved the airportand installed military command
Mujahideen insurgents rebelled against the Communists
became a center of military and guerilla activity during Afghan War
Soviets withdrew in 1989

Afghan guerillas continued to fight incessantly following Soviet withdrawal
fighting occurred mostly in and around Kabul
war destroyed the city
tensions between ethnic groups increased
many people fled as refugees due to dangers of war and the lack of food production during war
mujahideen and Pashtuns grappled for control

-gained control in 1996
-did little to repair the city
-excluded women from employment and education
-destroyed non-Islamic relics
-gained support from Pashtun
-fled in 2001 following US retaliation against terrorist attacks

city composed of old and new buildings
many buildings torn down and rebuilt
many historical monuments and gardens
Dar al-Aman palace is the residence of parliament and government deparments
industries include food-processing,wool mills, furniture factory, and marble works
center of culture and economy, especially during early development due to location

5 million children attend school, and of those one-third are girls
1 in 4 teachers are women
economic growth is steady
economy less dependent on agriculture production
follows an Islamic Republic
world's largest producer of the drug opium
This picture shows drought in Afghanistan. More than fifty percent of the land gets less than 300 millimeters of rain a year.
This map shows how Afghanistan is landlocked, meaning it is only surrounded by land and does not have a coastline.
The Hindu Kush Mountains.
This is summer in Afghanistan. Notice the hills and valleys.
Winter in Afghanistan - Just like Canada?!
Soviet tanks roll into Kabul
Ancient and modern architecture of Kabul
Afghan women wearing burqas
War obliterates Kabul
Afghan girls attend school
History of Kabul
Kabul Under the Soviets
Architecture and Industry of Kabul
Kabul Under the Taliban
Kabul Today
1989
In 1989, the last of the Soviet troops were leaving. Civil war still pushed on as the mujahideen try to overthrow Mohammad Najibullah, the former head of the secret police during the Soviet intervention, out of rule. The mujahideen disliked him because he became president during the Soviet-backed regime.
Treatment of Women
Poverty in Afghanistan
1992
In 1992, Najibullah is forced out of office by mujahideen rebels and his government falls. A civil war between guerillas then breaks out.
"Kabul"
To the critical eye, the city of Kabul appears to be a trampled, dusty, decrepit city. Those who only see Kabul's external faults are blind to her subtle beauty. Beyond the rugged surface of the city lies astounding beauty unique only to Kabul. Kabul's beauty is envied even by Heaven. The author clearly adores Kabul, and uses metaphors, similes, and descriptive language to express his feelings.

This poem does not only convey the author's love of the city, but also its defining geographical features. Prominent mountains surround Kabul and they emit beauty despite its sharp and rugged features. The author also describes the colorful plants that decorate the landscape.

At first glance, readers may only think Saad-e-Tabrizi references Kabul's geography, but after a second look at the poem, they may notice all of the cultural references. In the poem, it mentions "Allah" and "paradise", so religion must play a big role in Kabul's culture. Expanding, the poem says "May Allah protect such beauty from the evil eye of man". Readers can deduct from this sentence that the people of Kabul may be superstitious. Lastly, most of the poem is meaningfully phrased and the words are planted in it carefully. Because of this, readers can insinuate that the people of Kabul place a high value on words and art.
Dangers and Barriers in Afghanistan
The Taliban
Land Mines
Civil War
Analysis of "Kabul"
1996
In 1996, the Taliban invade and capture Kabul. They then enforce a strict version of Islam. Under this adaptation, women can not work and people are subject to harsh punishments such as stoning and amputation.
1998
The United States launches cruise missiles strikes to a suspected base of Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. He was suspected of being responsible for the bombing of the U.S. embassies in Africa.
2003
In 2003, Nato took over the peace-keeping force in Kabul. Nato had supplied about 90% of the troops. This deployment was Nato's first move in a country outside of Europe.
2001
In March of 2001, the Taliban destroyed the Buddhas of Bamiyan. These were two standing Buddha figures carved into the side of the Bamyan valley. They were blown with dynamite by the Taliban after they decided they were idols not related with Islam.
The Buddhas of Bamiyan.
by Saad-e-Tabrizi
2008
A suicide bomber attacked the Indian embassy in Afghanistan in 2008. He pulled up to the embassy in a car loaded with explosives just as people were arriving at work. More than fifty people died as a result of the attack.
2009
Barack Obama brings in an extra 30,000 U.S. troops, bringing the total to 100,000. The troops are meant to help train Afghan army and police and support civilian protection and development. He planned on withdrawing forces by 2011.

Prone to oppression, particularly by Taliban because of Shi'ite Muslim beliefs
Descendents of Mongol conquerors, settled in Hindu Kush Mountains
Granted independence during Soviet rule in exchange for cooperation
Suffered during civil war due to geographic position
Joined Northern Alliance following the fall of Taliban rule

Live in the southern deserts of Afghanistan
Nomadic tribe that travels seasonally
Known for camel breeding
Practice Sunni Islamic beliefs
Speak Baluchi, Dari, and Pashto
Migrated to Afghanistan following Soviet occupation is Uzbekistan
Usually have "lighter" complexion
Identify themselves as Hanafi Sunni Muslims
4th largest ethnic group
Reside in mountain region primarily
Live in small villages - mostly farmers
Represented in the Afghan government through Parliament
Averse to Pashtuns
A minority group in Afghanistan
Craftsmen and herders
Their herdsmen supply world markets with prized Karakul sheep pelts and magnificent wool carpets from their renowned weavers.
Carpet weaving = integral to culture
Also live in tents
Migrated to Afghanistan after being driven from Turkmenistan by Soviets

Nomadic tribe of horsemen and warriors
Most live in tents
Craftsmen and herders
Led by a khan
Related to Uzbeks
Most left Afghanistan for Pakistan following Soviet rule
Made up of 9 separate groups
Oral traditions of culture - very little written down
Forcibly converted to Islam in 1800s
Farmers and herders - they have lush land
Some have achieved high military status
The Kyrgyz People
Largest Afghan ethnic group at 42% of the country
Dominant ruling class of Afghanistan
Descendants of an eastern Iranian tribe
United by Pashto language - although many speak Urdu
Farmers and influential government officials
Ruled by Pashtunwali culture of norms - Some of the principles include hospitality, justice, courage, loyalty and honoring women.
Many Pashtuns today are SUNNI muslims - their culture ruled by religious law.
The Pashtun People
The Turkmen People
The Uzbek People
2nd largest Afghan ethnic group
Among the first settlers in Afghanistan
A tall, slender, fair-skinned people with blue or green eyes and often with red or blond hair
Intermarriage with Turks and Mongolians introduced almond-shaped eyes and straight black hair to their physical characteristics.
Referred to as "Persian" - name means the same.
Merchants and highly talented craftsmen - city dwellers
Social tradition is offering extraordinary hospitality - a practice shared with other Afghan people
Ahmad Shah Masoud, Afghanistan's revered Taliban resistance leader who was assassinated in 2001
Active members of the Northern Alliance, the group of rebels opposing Taliban rule
Oppressed heavily by Taliban
The Nuristani People

Religious rather than ethnic minority
Live in a their own distinct region
Mainly Hazaras, Tajiks, and Pashtuns
The Ismaili People
The Baluchi People
The Hazara People
The Tajiks
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