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Timeline of Events Leading up to the Indian Removal Act
Transcript of Timeline of Events Leading up to the Indian Removal Act
The US government urges the Cherokee to abandon hunting along with their traditional ways of life. They are suggested to convert to Christianity.
Georgia officials initiate the Hopewell Treaty with the Cherokee, a treaty that established boundaries for Cherokee hunting grounds and initiated the dispossession of the Cherokee claim to their land.
The Compact of 1802 is made by president Thomas Jefferson to the state of Georgia. In it, the United States pays Georgia 1.25 million U.S. dollars for its central and western lands and promised that the U.S. government would extinguish American Indian land titles in Georgia.
The purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France gives president Thomas Jefferson an opportunity to implement the relocation of the eastern tribes beyond the Mississippi River. Jefferson suggested, Native Americans could acculturate at their own pace, retain their autonomy, and live free from the trespasses of American settlers. Most Cherokees rejected Jefferson's entreaties, however small groups moved west to the Arkansas River.
Major General Andrew Jackson leads an expedition against the Creek Indians climaxing in the Battle of Horse Shoe Bend. Jackson’s force defeats the Creeks and destroys their military power. He then forces upon the Indians a treaty in which they surrendered over twenty-million acres of their traditional land. About one-half of present day Alabama and one-fifth of Georgia.
The Treaty of the Cherokee Agency marks a new campaign designed to divide the Cherokee nation. Extensive land seizure follows.
The Cherokees effectively resist ceding their full territory by creating a new form of tribal government based on the United States government. Rather than being governed by a traditional tribal council, the Cherokees adopt a constitution and create a two-house legislature.
Congress passes an Act regarding the civilization of the Indian tribes intended to prevent any further decline in the Indian population. However, the provisions outlined in this Act had the opposite effect. The President was given authority and funds to take any actions that he saw fit to make the Indians more civilized.
Congress passes An Act to Abolish the United States Trading Establishment with the Indian Tribes. The act allowed all excess materials collected through the termination of trade with the Indians to be at the President's disposal. He was given the authority to sell them as he saw fit, and to use the profits to carry out this act.
Feb. 28. Supreme Court Case: Johnson v. McIntosh. The Supreme Court held that private citizens could not purchase lands directly from Native Americans.
Treaty of Washington. Addressed members of the Cherokee nation west of the Mississippi, guaranteeing them seven million acres of land and a “perpetual outlet” west as far “as the sovereignty of the United States,” extends. Such agreements set the stage for the justification of mass removal.
President Andrew Jackson signes into law the Indian Removal Act