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Introduction to Knowledge Management

First class session (08.10.2013)

Małgorzata Adamczyk

on 14 January 2016

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Transcript of Introduction to Knowledge Management

Małgorzata J. Adamczyk, MA
teaching assistant at the International Management Department

Knowledge Managemenet - Introduction
35% written analyse of a case study
(individual assignment)
20% active participation in the class sessions
45% group project
(oral presentation at the end of the term)
Mode of assesment
5-6 monitors per class
Monitors are supposed to read carefully the provided materials (available on Virtual University website). Then, for one class session, they become our experts in the field. They will not simply present what they have read, but rather use the tools provided in the readings to analyze case studies or explain certain phenomena to other students. As a monitor, be prepared to answer any question related to the subject discussed in the article you have read.
What is considered an active
participation in class sessions?
Deadline for forming the groups: 29.10.2013
Deadline for consulting the final subject of your team project (through e-mail and then during the office hours): 12.11.2013
Deadline for sending the electronic version of the presentation: 04.01.2014
Presenting the projects in front of the group: 07.01.2014
Form groups of 3-5 students. Choose a product, service, technology, process or idea you want to work with: drills, pharmaceutical drugs, adhesive bandages, cookies, e-banking… Whatever you are familiar with thanks to your job or other extra-academic activities. Then, using one of the following methods (Lead User, Outcome-Driven Innovation, Design Thinking; they will be described and explained later during the class) as a market research tool, analyse it and meet new customer needs, market old needs in new ways or, well, innovate in another way you can think of.
At least one consultation of the project during the office hours is mandatory (the one before 12.11.2013); further consultations are advised if needed. Deadlines for the exchange students leaving before the end of the semester will be respectively shorter.
Group project:
Looking for Innovation
Written analysis of a case study
Case studies you can choose from are available in the library in a separate prof. Jemielniak's knowledge management folder.
Deadline: 17.12.2012
By that time, you are supposed to provide the teachers with a hard copy of your text.
Avoid plagiarism, both intentional and unintentional!
If you are caught plagiarizing, you will receive a zero on your work. Repeated offenses can lead to failing the course, a record in your student file and possible expulsion from school.
"understanding obtained through the process of experience or appropriate study”
(Awad & Ghaziri 2004)
"an accumulation of facts, procedural rules, or heuristics"
(Awad & Ghaziri 2004)
fact: a statement representing truth about a subject matter or domain
procedural rule: a rule that describes a sequence of actions
heuristic is a rule of thumb based on years of experience
Davenport & Prusak, 2000
Knowledge: "a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organizational routines, processes,
practices, and norms.
Wilson, 2002
"'Knowledge' is defined as what we know: knowledge involves the mental processes of comprehension, understanding and learning that go on in the mind and only in the mind, however much they involve inter-action with the world outside the mind, and interaction with others."
Howitt, 1996
Knowledge: "the ability of an individual or group of individuals to undertake, or
to instruct or otherwise induce others to undertake, procedures resulting in predictable transformations of material objects"
Knowledge: "dynamic human process of justifying personal belief towards the 'truth' "
Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995
Knowledge: experience or information that can be communicated or shared
Allee, 1997
Locke, 1689
Knowledge: "the perception of the agreement or disagreement of two ideas"
"Knowledge is social acts"
History of Knowledge Management
Aristotle: 'techne' and 'episteme' division
Techne: instrumental, practical knowledge (see the word 'technology')
Episteme: "pure", theoretical, academical knowledge
Long lasting depreciation of the first one: still influential in the contemporary world
1975: Chaparral Steel announces that its structure and strategy will be based on KM
1987: the conference "Managing the Knowledge Assets into 21st Century" is organized
1991 Ikujiro Nonaka's article "The knowledge creating company" is published in Harvard Business Review
1991: in Skandia's annual report its intellectual capital (meaning the difference in value between physical and financial tangible assets on one side and market value on the other) is announced
2002-2005: crisis? the concept of KM criticized as not fulfilling hopes that were pinned on it
Is Knowledge Management something more than a fad, a buzzword or intellectual fashion?
question to keep in mind until the end of the term
Reasons for KM importance
IT and communication systems development
More knowledge in the world around us (the one you have doubles every 11 months!)
Shorter life-cycles of products
Quality competition
Intellectual work more popular
Innovations important in product development
Knowledge-based economy
as an asset.
as a product.
Knowledge as limitation.

sign + syntax = data

data + context = information

information + structure = knowledge

knowledge + application = wisdom

data = a set of discrete and objective, but unorganized and unprocessed facts about events
information = aggregation of processed data which makes decision making easier; it has usually got some meaning and purpose
Hoards of information are of little value; only that information which is actively processed in the mind of an individual through a process of reflection, enlightenment, or learning can be useful.
Who's managing knowledge?
Who's managing knowledge?
product / process / social innovation
new use for the old technology
new technology of producing the old product
novel combination of old products
completely new product
the process through which an enterprise uses
its collective intelligence to accomplish its strategic objectives
Knowledge Management
Firestone & McElroy, 2003
What does it mean to know something?
When did the battle of Tannenberg start?
How much is 19 x 28 ?
What is the difference between red and white wine?
How to ride a bike?
Tacit: vague, based on experience, context-bound (“here and now”), “practical”, subjective, often tied to physical activities
Explicit: “objective”, easily codified and transferable, based on rational thinking, theoretical

Tacit / Explicit
Polanyi, 1967
How to transform one kind of knowledge into another?
SECI model:

How to characterize knowledge?
Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995
4C: comparison, consequences
connections, conversation
context: we know for what purpose the data was gathered
categorization: we know the units of analysis or key components of the data
calculation: the data may have been analyzed mathematically or statistically
correction: errors have been removed from the data
How to transform information into knowledge?
(Davenport & Prusak)
product / process / social innovation
new use for the old technology
new technology of producing the old product
novel combination of old products
completely new product
3M (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing) and Innovation
Post-it, Scotch tape, Scotch-aid
6% turnover from products younger than a year
mistakes not being punished
pro-innovative rules of proceeding
Our Knowledge Management course in a nutshell?
how to be as effective and as innovative as 3M - tools and methods in one semester
Full transcript