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Transcript of Ancient Rome
The Founding of Rome
Ruled much of Italy, including Rome.
“Common People” Farmers, Traders, and Craftsmen.
Most people belonged to this class.
Romans had legends to explain their history.
753 BC Romulus and Remus:
Twin brothers left to die who were raised by a wolf.
Phoenicians, Greeks, and Etruscans:
All three were early inhabitants of Italy.
Phoenicia had colonies on Sicily and the coast of North Africa.
Greeks also had colonies on Sicily and along the southern Italian coast.
Beginning of Roman Civilization
Plebeians improve Political and Social standing:
Gained right to hold office
A few became Senators
Patrician judges took advantage of plebeians who were unfamiliar with unwritten Roman laws.
450 BC Unwritten laws became written:
Written on 12 tables and hung in the Roman Forum:
This section of the city was the center of government.
Law was now applied equally
Law was learned in schools
Law of Twelve Tables became the foundation of Roman civil law.
Right to assembly and elected officials
Council of Plebeians:
Elected ten men to office of tribune:
Tribunes protected common man’s rights
Struggle Within the Republic
The Roman World
Rome-The Master of the
Third Punic War
After 3 years Rome captured Carthage:
Plowed up the land and sold survivors into slavery.
Carthage became a Roman province called Africa.
While in control Rome was merciful and fair to her subjects:
Granted citizenship, the right to vote, and right to hold office.
Rome did require subjects to furnish troops to help fight wars.
From Republic to Empire
Rome-The Master of the
Rome-The Master of Italy
Jealous of Caesar, he sought help from the Senate.
Senate ordered Caesar return to Rome without an army.
Caesar and his men crossed the Rubicon and marched toward Rome.
The Republic Collapses
Problems due to Roman expansion:
As Rome grew, the gap between rich poor grew wider.
Two Great Social Classes:
Father held absolute authority over the family. (Even had the power of life and death)
Wealthy landholders and noble families making up the aristocratic class.
Held highest positions in early Roman Society.
Rome overthrew the Etruscan monarchy.
Rome replaced the monarchy with a republic.
What is a republic?
Held all consulships
Dominated the Senate and Assemblies
Made most laws
Controlled the Courts
Was the chief assembly of early republic.
Responsible for the following:
Voting on legislation submitted by consuls
Making declarations of war
Electing high ranking government officials
Consists of three branches:
Few social privileges
No voice in government
Excluded from holding high public office
Lost property or sold into slavery for not repaying loans.
Could not intermarry with Patricians
Two were elected for the following:
Supervise government affairs
Command Roman Army
Serve as supreme judges
Neither Consul could act without consent from the other.
One year terms:
Prevented one from becoming too powerful.
Membership and Voting determined by:
Place of Residence
Assembly of Centuries
Most powerful body in republic.
Aristocratic body that safeguarded the powers of the patrician class.
Composed of 300 members who were appointed for life
Responsible for the following:
Supervising foreign affairs
Rome was always at war with Italian neighbors:
Patricians could not handle war on their own:
Had to rely on Plebeians for help
Plebeians wanted representation in government:
Threatened to leave army in order to gain concessions from the Patricians
First Punic War
Second Punic War
Marched army into northern Italy across the Alps.
Led his army to victories over the next fifteen years.
Battle of Cannae
Carthage forced to give up all territory outside North Africa, reduce fleet to ten ships, and pay Rome for war damages.
Rome had become masters of the western world.
Battle of Zama
After Second Punic War:
Rome focused on eastern Mediterranean
Macedonia, Syria, and Egypt were engaged in a power struggle.
Rome proceeded to defeat all three kingdoms:
Rivalry between the two led to the “Punic Wars” from 264 to 146 BC.
Lack money to get farm land back into shape.
Unable to pay taxes, and lost their land.
Few jobs available because of slaves.
Some became tenant farmers.
Many farmers turned to government for help.
Citizen-Farmers returning from war
Disorder of the Roman state led to three Civil Wars.
First Civil War
Second Civil War
Caesar support of the common people.
Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar
All three wanted to rule Rome.
Crassus had the money
Pompey support of the Senate
Fought over who would be the sole ruler of Rome.
Battle of Actium:
Decisive battle that ends the Roman Civil War and leads to the creation of the Roman Empire.
As governor of Gaul, he trained a well disciplined army.
Remained popular in Rome by sending word of his military accomplishments.
Alliance formed between the three in 60 BC in order to rule Rome together.
Pompey’s forces were no match for Caesar’s.
Pompey fled to Egypt where he was killed.
Caesar named himself Dictator of Rome for life.
Killed by a groups of conspirators in the Senate Chamber.
Established colonies for landless army veterans, granted citizenship to many non-Italians in the colonies, and he initiated public works programs.
Established 365 ¼ days calendar.
March 15, 44 BC
Third Civil War
Mark Antony and Octavian teamed together to capture Caesar’s murderers.
Antony ruled the East
Octavian ruled the West
Octavian vs. Antony
As Roman power spread around the Mediterranean, the republic ended and the age of the Roman Empire began.
Rome gains complete control of the Italian peninsula
Learned about Greek myths, architecture, sculpture, and language.
Basic unit of early Roman society.
Roman women played a larger role in society than did Greek women.
Loving, Dutiful, Dignified, and Strong
Backbone of the Roman economy
Minimum of one slave per freeman
100,000 slaves in Rome alone
Main Idea: Rome developed a republican form of government based on strong civic virtues and gained control over much of the Italian peninsula.
“Senatus Populus Que Romanus”
The Senate & People of Rome
Basic military unit of Rome
Made of land-owning citizen-soldiers (no pay)
Conquest of Italy
As Rome enlarged its territory, its republican form of government grew increasingly unstable.
The Rise of Christianity
A new religion, Christianity, emerged in the Roman empire. It gradually spread and became the official religion of the empire.
Rome controlled the Italian Peninsula
Why were the Punic wars important?
"Carthage must be destroyed!"
Religious Diversity in the Early Empire
Roman policy of tolerating faiths that were not seen as offensive to the Roman people.
Blessings by the gods were responsible for Rome's success
Focused on religious ceremony rather than religious belief
Key gods were modeled after Greek gods to grant them great appeal
The Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Roman Emperor Titus, along with the rest of the city, in 70 CE, during the First Jewish-Roman War.
Triumphal Arch of Titus
Waiting for the Messiah
Jesus of Nazareth
Itinerant preacher/healer/prophet of the “Kingdom of God”
Christianity regards Jesus as the awaited Messiah of the Old Testament and refers to him as Jesus Christ
Crucifixion of Jesus
To the Roman Authorities "Dangerous Troublemaker"
Suspicion of Christians
Failed to worship the emperor
Accused of ritual cannibalism (Eucharist)
"The die is cast."
Bread and Circuses
Title of Augustus meaning “the exalted one”
Head Senator & Tribune
Oversaw census, morality & finances
Total military authority
Extravagant leader known for his tyranny and persecution of Christians.
Responsible for the Great Fire of Rome - blamed Christian cultists.
The government provided free grain, and entrainment through tax dollars to pacify the poor.
Roman code for Nero used by Christians to describe him as the Antichrist
Persecution of Christians
Collapse of Rome
Germanic tribe living in Roman borders
Badly treated revolt and invade Rome (410 CE)
High taxes work instead of going to school
Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Protected by key religious relics (True Cross)
Western Roman Empire falls in 476 CE
Defeat of Augustulus
Invade and sack Rome for 12 days (455 CE)
Vandalism – senseless destruction of things beautiful or venerable
Germanic tribes attack Rome
Guaranteed Constantine’s control over the entire Roman Empire.
Caused his conversion to Christianity.
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Eastern Roman Empire
Believed the Roman Empire was ungovernable
Split the empire into East & West
Constantine The Great
Issued the Edict of Milan - Ended Christian persecution by granting freedom of worship to all citizens of the Roman Empire.
In hoc signo vinces
(‘In this sign conquer’)
Fall of Rome
Weakened Roman Legions
Erosion of traditional values
Self-serving upper class
Slave economy (no independent farmers)
"Bread and Circuses" (high levels of poverty - need for gov't services)
Low consumer spending
In what ways did geographical location affect the development of Rome?
Around 600 B.C.E. an Etruscan became king of Rome.
Why did patricians want to prevent plebeians from holding important positions?
Foreign invasions, along with political, social, and economic problems, led to the fall of the Roman Empire.
27 B.C. to 180 C.E