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the practice of officially examining books, movies, etc., and suppressing unacceptable parts Frye's Opinion Introduction Do you think censorship is necessary in literature? Literature as an Escape It is easy to say that literature is a “refuge or escape from life,” (57). Frye, earlier, suggests that literature provides “a sense of escape, or at least a detachment [from life],” (57). Now Frye elaborates on his previous thoughts and goes on to say that the “...real point of literature can hardly be [an escape],” (57). William Faulkner and Francois Mauriac: “great moral dignity, the intensity and compassion that they studied the life around them with” (57).
James Joyce: spent seven years on one book, and seventeen on another and had them “ridiculed [and] abused [and] banned by the customs when they did get published,” (57).
Poets Rilke and Valéry: “waited patiently for years in silence” until they could finally say what they had wanted to say," (57). Examples In summation... Literature is NOT simply an escape Our Sensibilities Become Refined Horror as Entertainment - Literature presents material to us as entertaining pieces
- Think about movies, horror films specifically, how we are entertained by gruesome scenes Example from Frye There is a scene in King Lear where Glouscter's eyes are gouged out on stage
Since this is obviously not a real blinding scene, the audience's reactions are not of true horror Frye says... We are viewing the scene from an imaginative perspective; we feel the emotions but are not paralyzed by an actual scene of torture unveiling on stage. (P. 59) [sen-suh-bil-i-tee] Keen consciousness or appreciation.
sensibilities, emotional capacities.
Sometimes, sensibilities. liability to feel hurt or offended; sensitive feelings. [ri-fahynd] To bring to a finer state or form by purifying.
To make more fine, subtle, or precise: to refine one's writing style. Another Perspective... In Nicholas Sparks' "The Notebook", we view Allie's cheating on her fiance Lon as a justified thing. The Two Kinds of Literary Responses 1. Direct Experience of the work itself/ Pre-Critical Response
- Such as when we are watching a play or reading a book.
2. Conscious and Critical Response
-Made after we finish watching a play or reading a book.
-We compare this literary work with others we have experienced.
-Strengthens our Pre-Critical response. "But behind our responses to individual works, there's a bigger response to our literary experience as a whole, as a total possession" (Frye, 63). What is a Literary Critic? Literary critics are judges of literature but not because they are superior to the writers but because they have to be experienced and highly educated when it comes to literature. The job of the critic is to interpret all literary works in the light of all the literature they know, and to continue to struggle to understand the meaning of literature as a whole. "Literature is a human apocalypse, man's revelation to man, and criticism is not a body of adjudications, but the awareness of that revelation, the last judgment of mankind" (Frye, 64). Example: Our progression since our first Shakespearean play to our third. Discussion Question: How has your pre-critical response altered since you read Romeo and Juliet in relation to other plays by Shakespeare? Methods and Devices Method of Proof: Literary Reference
-Finnegan's Wake by James Joyce and its relation to the title of the essay (Last paragraph on page 62 to end of first paragraph on page 63). Method of Development: Example and Illustration
-The examples presented when Frye explains each of the two literary responses (Second paragraph on page 63). Rhetorical Device: Analogy
-When Frye compares the experience that a literary critic needs to the fact that judges cannot be appointed to the bench unless they have been lawyers and are experienced with the law (Top of page 64). The Title of the Essay: "The Keys to Dreamland" Derived from James Joyce's "Finnegans Wake". "In this book a man goes to sleep and falls, not into the Freudian separate or private subconscious, but into the deeper dream of a man that creates and destroys his own societies" (Frye, 63). Frye then says that we need two powers in literature: a power to create and a power to understand. Discussion Question: What do you think Northrop Frye means when he says: "Finnegans Wake is not a book to read, but a book to decipher..." (Frye, 63)? This is the main point of the essay because Frye is trying to explain that readers play a large role in literature, as well, because they need to learn from their literary experiences in order to develop their understanding of literature as a whole and they need to know better than to use literature as a direct guide to life. Readers must do all of this midst reading for pleasure. Main Point of Essay Discussion Question: Are critics always right about the value of literary works? Why or why not? How does literature refine our sensibilities? Literature is not a Dreamworld What does this mean? Conformity + Convention Conformity is behaviour in accordance with socially accepted conventions or standards
Convention is a way that something is usually done, and how it is considered in society Artificial "Suppose you're walking down... think of it as natural." (49)
- Everything around us in today's society is highly artificial Uniformity Are we a part of uniformity? "Women want to conventionalize... same thing." (49/50) Benefits and dangers of literature brought into reality Frye says... "So however useful literature may be... guide to life." (52) Literature and life are both conventionalized "Life and... different they are." (52)
"To bring anything... literature like." (53) Prose To talk or write in a dull or tedious manner, the ordinary form of spoken or written language. Devices: "Suppose you're... But suppose your... trick on you." (49)
- This quote is a method of proof, because he is drawing the reader in.
"As I hinted... already know." (50)
- Method of development using example and illustration.
Statements of opinion and personal belief
- Throughout the essay, Frye's statements are his beliefs, not hard facts
Allusion (rhetorical device)
- Allusions to Shakespeare and Elizabeth Bennet Works Cited Finnegans Wake. 2013. empowerlingua, London. Web. 26 Feb 2013.
Granger, . James Joyce. N.d. Fine Art America, Trieste. Web. 26 Feb 2013.
'Howl' Trailer. 2010. Youtube, Hollywood. Web. 26 Feb 2013.
Keys and Their Symbolism . 2011. The writing Nut, Los Angeles. Web. 26 Feb 2013.
Macbeth. 2011. Literary Odyssey , Toronto. Web. 26 Feb 2013.
Othello. 2006. Easy to TeachWeb. 26 Feb 2013.
Romeo and Juliet. 2012. Ancient Gifts, Washington. Web. 26 Feb 2013.
Slicker, Michael. Happy Birthday, James Joyce. 2012. Old Florida Bookstore , Florida. Web. 26 Feb 2013. Do you agree with Northrop Frye's statement that we need the power to create and the power to understand, in literature? If yes, how does your experience with literature reflect how you understand it? What role do you think censorship plays in literature? Question: involuntary |inˈvälənˌterē|
1 done without will or conscious control: she gave an involuntary shudder.
• (esp. of muscles or nerves) concerned in bodily processes that are not under the control of the will. “Works of literature get into legal trouble because they offend some powerful religious or political interest, and this interest in turn usually acquires or exploits [a] kind of social hysteria” (55). Lady Chatterley's Lover Lady Constance Chatterley is emotionally and physically isolated from her disabled husband
She begins an affair with Oliver Mellors, the couple's gamekeeper
Summary : book contains explicit sexual content considered "unprintable" during the time
novel became subject of 1960 obscenity trial
non-guilty verdict The Public's Response... “There is no such thing as a morally bad novel: its moral effect depends entirely on the moral quality of its reader, and nobody can predict what that will be,” (56). Two Separate Dreams: - Not a world, two separate dreams
- Wish fulfillment and anxiety to become fully conscious vision p.62 No matter how many experiences we get from life, we can never get the full dimension of experience imagination gives us. (p.61) The Shakespeare Conspiracy - Shakespeare's plays weren't produced by experience, but by imagination and experience gathered from reading books
- While his experiences weren't real, what he wrote was reflective of real life and thereby not a dreamworld. Devices: Vertical Literature Horizontal Literature "...gives us an experience that stretches us vertically to the heights and depths of what the human mind can conceive to the conceptions of heaven and hell in religion," (61). "...looks out to life," (58). Which is More Important? * What differences does the study of literature make in our social, political or religious attitude? * Conventions make Literature Involuntary involuntary |invälnter|adjective1 done without will or conscious control: she gave an involuntary shudder. “Much of a writer’s best writing is or seems to be involuntary…because the forms of literature itself are taking control of it, and these forms are what are embodied in the conventions of literature,” (55). therefore... “...because of the large involuntary element in writing, works of literature can’t be treated as embodiments of conscious will or intention,” (55). 1. Fifty Shades of Grey Series by: E. L. James by: D. H. Lawrence Literary Reference: Frye references Shakespeare's King Lear on p.59 Rhetorical Question: After discussing a scene in King Lear, Frye asks, "Now in what sense can a scene like that be entertaining?" p.59 Historical Reference: Frye makes reference to the Puritans on p.60 Appeal to Figures of Authority: Frye references the German poet Rilke on p.61 Similie: "...like a pair of glasses..." p.62 "Key" Concept: Vertical and Horizontal Literature Methods of Development: Example and Illustration: uses novel "Lady Chatterley's Lover" by D. H. Lawrence to support his statement that "literature [can] get into legal trouble [if] they offend some powerful religious or political interest," (55). supports statement that literature is more than just simply an escape by referencing the hardships of William Faulkner, James Joyce, Francois Mauriac, Rilke and Valéry (pg. 57). Definition: "horizontal literature" and "vertical literature" defines them on page 58 of The Educated Imagination Comparison and Contrast: literature and informational writing: Informational writing is "an act of will and intention," (54). Literature is "...different...because...what's important is not what [the writer] may have meant to say, but what the words themselves say when they get fitted together," (54). Cause and Effect: "because of the large involuntary element in writing, works of literature can't be treated as embodiments of conscious will or intention," (55). Methods of Proof Statement of Opinion and Personal Belief: "...the real point of litearture can hardly be [an escape]," (57). Rhetorical Devices Allusion: William Faulkner, Francois Mauriac, James Joyce, Rilke and Valéry (pg.57). Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence the 1960 obscenity trial of D. H. Lawrence's Novel Appeal to Figure of Authority Frye references D. H. Lawrence on page 61 “In literature we always seem to be looking either up or down. It is the vertical perspective that’s important, not the horizontal one...” (58). In the vertical perspective, "what I like or don't like disappears because there's nothing left of me as a separate person...I only exist as a representative of humanity as a whole," (61). "...emotions [tend to] separate the world into a half that we like and a half that we don't like," (58). 2.