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water pollution by 8A

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by

Zohaib Mohammed

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of water pollution by 8A

Water Pollution And Solution
Animal Dung

Oil Spill

Pesticide

Septic tank

Household waste

Waste Water

Intensive farming

Industrial waste

Nuclear waste

OVERVIEW OF SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
Pollution caused by leaks from refineries and offshore drilling platforms, by ships emptying their fuel tanks at sea and by oil spills.
Radioactive nuclear waste was once immersed at the bottom of the ocean; it has a life span of up to 1,000 years.
Industrial waste is highly variable; its principal components are lead, mercury, cadmium, hydrocarbons and acid deposits.
Untreated, it contains organic matter (e.g., bacteria, viruses) and potentially pathogenic substances that cause infection and promote the growth of algae.
Burying household waste without taking any particular precautionary measures leads to contamination of the water table.
Pesticide residue is found in the water table and in watercourses; it makes water unfit for consumption.
Certain underground gas tanks leak, discharging hydrocarbons into the water table.
Wastewater leakage from a dwelling’s underground tank contaminates the water table.
To achieve maximum production, intensive farming uses chemical fertilizers responsible for various forms of air and water pollution.
Animal dung introduces large quantities of nitrate into the soil; the nitrate then filters into the water table.
Oil Pollution
Causes of Water Pollution
Introduction
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water.
Domestic households, industrial and agricultural practices produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers. Sewage is the term used for wastewater that often contains faeces, urine and laundry waste. Sewage disposal is a major problem in developing countries as many people in these areas don’t have access to sanitary conditions and clean water. Untreated sewage water in such areas can contaminate the environment and cause many diseases. Sewage is treated in water treatment plants and the waste is often disposed into the sea. Sewage is mainly biodegradable and most of it is broken down in the environment. Sewage often causes problems when people flush chemical and pharmaceutical substances down the toilet. When people are ill, sewage often carries harmful viruses and bacteria into the environment causing health problems.
Sewage and Wastewater
Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run-offs and dumping.Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil that enters the ocean. The rest come from shipping travel, drains and dumping.An oil spill from a tanker is a severe problem because there is such a huge quantity of oil being spilt into one place.Oil spills cause a very localised problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea otters.Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge in the water. This suffocates fish, gets caught in the feathers of marine birds stopping them from flying and blocks light from photosynthetic aquatic plants.


Oil Pollution
Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes that use radioactive material. Nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on marine habitats. Nuclear waste comes from a number of sources:

Operations conducted by nuclear power stations produce radioactive waste. Nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in northern Europe are the biggest sources of man-made nuclear waste in the surrounding
ocean. Radioactive traces from these plants have been found as far away as Greenland.
Mining and refining of uranium and thorium are also causes of marine nuclear waste.
Waste is also produced in the nuclear fuel cycle which is used in many industrial, medical and scientific processes.
Radioactive Wastes
Underground Storage Leakages
A tank or piping network that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground is known as an underground storage tank (UST). They often store substances such as petroleum, that are harmful to the surrounding environment should it become contaminated. Many UST’s constructed before 1980 are made from steel pipes that are directly exposed to the environment. Over time the steel corrodes and causes leakages, affecting surrounding soil and groundwater.
Dumping of litter in the sea can cause huge problems. Litter items such as 6-pack ring packaging can get caught in marine animals and may result in death. Different items take different lengths of time to degrade in water:

Cardboard - Takes 2 weeks to degrade.
Newspaper - Takes 6 weeks to degrade.
Photodegradable packaging - Takes 6 weeks to degrade.
Foam - Takes 50 years to degrade.
Styrofoam - Takes 80 years to degrade.
Aluminium -– Takes 200 years to degrade.
Plastic packaging - Takes 400 years to degrade.
Glass - It takes so long to degrade that we don’t know
the exact time.
Marine Dumpings
Eutrophication is when the environment becomes enriched with nutrients. This can be a problem in marine habitats such as lakes as it can cause algal blooms.

Fertilisers are often used in farming, sometimes these fertilisers run-off into nearby water causing an increase in nutrient levels.
This causes phytoplankton to grow and reproduce more rapidly, resulting in algal blooms. This bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem functioning and causes many problems. The algae may use up all the oxygen in the water, leaving none for other marine life. This results in the death of many aquatic organisms such as fish, which need the oxygen in the water to live.
The bloom of algae may also block sunlight from photosynthetic marine plants under the water surface. Some algae even produce toxins that are harmful to higher forms of life. This can cause problems along the food chain and affect any animal that feeds on them.
Eutrophication
An increase in water temperature can result in the death of many aquatic organisms and disrupt many marine habitats. For example, a rise in water temperatures causes coral bleaching of reefs around the world. This is when the coral expels the microorganisms of which it is dependent on. This can result in great damage to coral reefs and subsequently, all the marine life that depends on it.The rise in the Earth’s water temperature is caused by global warming.Global warming is a process where the average global temperature increases due to the greenhouse effect.The burning of fossil fuel releases greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere.This causes heat from the sun to get ‘trapped’ in the Earths atmosphere and consequently the global temperature rises.
Global Warming
Atmospheric deposition is the pollution of water caused by air pollutants.
In the atmosphere, water particles mix with carbon dioxide sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, this forms a weak acid.
Air pollution means that water vapour absorbs more of these gases and becomes even more acidic.

Atmospheric Depositions
Industry is a huge source of water pollution, it produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment. Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant and into rivers, lakes and oceans.

Pollutants from industrial sources include:
Asbestos
-
This pollutant is a serious health hazard and carcinogenic. Asbestos fibres can be inhaled and cause illnesses such as asbestosis, mesothelioma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer and liver cancer.
Lead
-
This is a metallic element and can cause health and environmental problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean up once the environment is contaminated. Lead is harmful to the health of many animals, including humans, as it can inhibit the action of bodily enzymes.
Mercury

-
This is a metallic element and can cause health and environmental problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean up once the environment is contaminated. Mercury is also harmful to animal health as it can cause illness through mercury poisoning.
Nitrates
-
The increased use of fertilisers means that nitrates are more often being washed from the soil and into rivers and lakes. This can cause eutrophication, which can be very problematic to marine environments.
Phosphates

-
The increased use of fertilisers means that phosphates are more often being washed from the soil and into rivers and lakes. This can cause eutrophication, which can be very problematic to marine environments.
Sulphur
-
This is a non-metallic substance that is harmful for marine life.
Oil
- Oil does not dissolve in water, instead it forms a thick layer on the water surface. This can stop marine plants receiving enough light for photosynthesis. It is also harmful for fish and marine birds.
Petrochemicals

-
This is formed from gas or petrol and can be toxic to marine life.
Industrial Waste
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
When it rains the water is polluted with these gases, this is called acid rain.
When acid rain pollutes marine habitats such as rivers and lakes, aquatic life is harmed.
Gases from Factories + Water
Acids
Effects of Water Pollution
Water pollution is very harmful to humans, animals and water life. The effects can be catastrophic, depending on the kind of chemicals, concentrations of the pollutants and where there are polluted.
Death of Aquatic Animals

The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills life that depends on these water bodies. Dead fish, crabs, birds and sea gulls, dolphins, and many other animals often wind up on beaches, killed by pollutants in their habitat (living environment).
Disruption of Food Chains

Diseases
Eventually, humans are affected by this process as well. People can get diseases such as hepatitis by eating seafood that has been poisoned. In many poor nations, there is always outbreak of cholera and diseases as a result of poor drinking water treatment from contaminated waters.
Destruction of Ecoystems
Ecosystems (the interaction of living things in a place, depending on each other for life) can be severely changed or destroyed by water pollution. Many areas are now being affected by careless human pollution, and this pollution is coming back to hurt humans in many ways.
Pollution disrupts the natural food chain as well. Pollutants such as lead and cadmium are eaten by tiny animals. Later, these animals are consumed by fish and shellfish, and the food chain continues to be disrupted at all higher levels.

Throw rubbish into proper waste bin
Do not throw rubbish into the beach, riverside and water bodies
This results in destruction of ecosystem
Measures to Reduce Water Pollution
Water covers over 70% of the Earth’s surface and is a very important resource for people and the environment. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. This consequently harms human health and the natural environment. Hence, it is very important to know how to reduce water pollution.
At home
At Home
In public
Industrial water treatment
Sewage treatment
Before raw sewage can be safely released back into the environment, it needs to be treated correctly in a water treatment plant.
Sewage goes through a number of chambers and chemical processes


Denitrification
Ozone waste water treatment
At public
Industrial water waste
Nitrification
Ozone waste water treatment
Conserve water.
Turn off the tap when water isn't necessary and try to take shorter showers if possible.
Helps prevent water shortages
reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment


Buy more environmentally safe cleaning liquids
Less dangerous to the environment



Not to overuse pesticides and fertilizers
Reduce runoffs of the material into nearby water sources

Help clean up litter in water-filled areas.
This includes beaches, lakes, and oceans

market
Use of biological filters and processes that naturally
degrade
the organic waste material.
Tertiary phase
-
Almost all solid particles are
removed
from the water and chemical additives are supplied to get rid of any left-over impurities.
Solid particles and inorganic material is
removed
by the use of filters.
Reduce the amount and toxicity of the waste
Fertilizers applied to crops by farmers to help plant growth and increase the yield contain nitrogen and phosphorus.
Bacteria in the soil convert the nitrogen in the fertilizer to nitrates, making it easier for the plants to absorb.
Immobilization is a process where the nitrates become part of the soil organic matter.
When oxygen levels are low, the denitrifying bacteria convert the nitrates into gases .
The conversion of these nitrates into gas is called denitrification. This prevents nitrates from reaching into the soil and contaminating groundwater.
Ozone is a very
reactive gas
that can oxidize bacteria, molds, organic material and other pollutants found in water.

Ozone converts back into oxygen quickly, and leaves no trace once it has been used.
 There are no nasty odors or residues produced from the treatment.

Oxidizes substances such as iron and sulfur so that they can be filtered out of the solution.

Kills bacteria effectively.
Using ozone to treat waste water has many benefits:
Due to Pollution
Thank You !!!
Full transcript