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Transposons

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by

Danielle Johnson

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Transposons

Repeats caused by transposons result in a large fraction of accessible chromatin regions, especially in embryonic and cancer cell lines
permissive chromatin state found in ESCs is reinstated in cancer
Main Article
Come For the Beautiful "Glass Gem" Corn; Stay for a Dose of Genetics
Summary
Corn kernels are actually individual seeds for the next corn plant
allows each seed to have its own DNA sequence
Transposons (jumping genes) are responsible for the different colors found in the corn kernels
the changes in the genetic code allow for different pigment production between kernels
Transposons in Bacteria

Simple
: only have genes needed for insertion
The Discovery of the Transposon
1940s
Barbara McClintock
found in maize
responsible for pattern in "indian corn"
Functions of the Transposon
good
examples: control of development of the embryo & production of antibodies
bad
examples: cause harmful genetic mutations & disease
Transposons
Transposon Definition
"small, mobile DNA sequences that can replicate and insert copies at random sites within chromosomes" - biology online
Complex
: contain genes needed for insertion and other genes
Transposons in Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes have two types of transposons
First Type
parts of the DNA sequence moves directly
Second Type
Retrotransposons
produce RNA that is transcribed from the DNA
new DNA is created and inserted into a new site
by: Sarah Zhang
The Good
genes in the developing embryo, DNA maintenance during division, antibody production
Transposons & the Embryo
First type
mRNA in early stage embryos is made from transposons
could have an affect on the way genes function during embryonic development
biological variation
Transposons and DNA Maintenance During Cell Division
insects
transposons move DNA to ends of chromosome to prevent telomere shortening during chromosome replication
Transposons and Antibody Production
Bacteria have both simple and complex transposons.
transposons can "shuffle" the genes responsible for making different antibodies
without this, our bodies would not be able to produce the different antibodies needed to fight disease
The Bad
cause harmful genetic mutations & disease
insert DNA similar to viruses and cause mutations
hemophilia, high cholesterol, and some heart diseases are associated with transposons
Transposons and the Human Genome
found in nearly half of the human genome
44% of open chromatin regions in humans
the source for new binding sites & transcription factors
tissue specific
Transposons and Cancer
In Short...
"transposon-derived sequences have contributed hundreds of thousands of novel regulatory elements to the primate lineage and reshaped the human transcriptional landscape."

-Jaques, Jeyakani, Bourque
Full transcript