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3.06 Mutations

A Biology assignment.
by

Jonah Hoppe

on 16 November 2012

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Transcript of 3.06 Mutations

By Jonah Hoppe (11/14/12) 3.06 Genetic Mutations Breast Cancer
Statistics 2007 Study of Women Diagnosed With Breast Cancer As Women’s Breast Cancer becomes one of the most leading deaths in the United States, we try to find cures of this mutation and get rid of it once and for all. In this case, we will be looking into how genetic mutations occur, the characteristics of breast cancer through a survey and the three types of breast cancer.

Mutations, such as cancer, could be caused from a mistake in DNA replication or from environmental factors. Since those mutations are effects of genetic variations, irregular growth of cells leads to mutation that can cause cancer. Another reason for getting a genetic mutation could occur if both parents contained the recessive genetic gene with the mutation and were passed to their offspring, and as a result express that mutation. For example, being diagnosed with breast cancer is an effect of these genetic mutations. According to the 2003 histogram, the estimated number of new cases of breast cancer reached a high of 75,000 on patients between the ages of 50-59. This shows us that the mutation is present but dormant until it expresses itself in the later years.

Since we know that cancer can spread throughout the body (metastasis), we have learned ideas to prevent death. For example, to prevent death from breast cancer, we use mastectomy and oophorectomy to surgically remove the cancerous cells so death will not take its toll on the patient as it could spread.

The two mutations on women diagnosed on breast cancer are BRCA1 mutation, BRCA2 mutation and no BRCA mutation. According to a 2007 study investigating BRCA mutations in women diagnosed with breast cancer where all of the women in the study had a history of breast cancer, the following information was collected out of a total of 442 patients, 89 showed BRCA1 mutations, the average age of diagnosis was 43.9 and a total of 16 died. 35 people were diagnosed with BRCA2 mutation; the average age of being diagnosed was 46.2, and a total of 1 person died. 318 people were diagnosed with no BRCA mutation; the average age of being diagnosed was 50.4 and a total of 21 people died. This comes to show that the BRCA1 mutation was the most lethal. According to the data being presented in the charts, having a family history of breast cancer gives the patient a 50%/50% chance of getting a mutation.

In conclusion, we can see that the BRAC1 Mutation is the most lethal out of the 3 mutations. Furthermore, the people who have been diagnosed with breast cancer were during their late 40’s and early 50s. And as we take in treatments and preventative surgeries, it comes to show that cancer can still be lethal for the people who are affected. On the contrary, we will keep on studying this mutation and find a cure in the near future to help the lives of the disease. Even though we have tried to prevent these deaths with mastectomy and oophorectomy the cancer-genes are still present in the population because in some point we have environmental factors such as sun ray exposure, use pesticide and tobacco. The histogram below shows the total estimated new breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2003. The Statistics include: Mutations Essay
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