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Causes of Iran's Revolution
Transcript of Causes of Iran's Revolution
This modernization regime "pushed aside" the merchant class and forced poorer peasants to become "migrant workers" in towns
The incomes of civil servants were fixed, and inflation lowered their standard of living
These people formed most of the opposition to the Shah that caused the 1979 revolution
The government handled the economic oil boom very badly and wasted its money on unnecessary projects, blaming the merchant class for its failures
The military was increased for the Shah's own safety, which caused further public discontent Iran's Government After 1953 Social and Cultural Concerns By Nicolle Beiglarbeigi, Olga Zhigunova, and Sydney Parker Political Concerns Unlike other changes, no westernization of government occurred
Mohammad Reza Shah ruled Iran with a single party government
Intelligence organization called SAVAK was founded, which became infamous for ruthlessness and harsh punishment
Thousands of political activists were tortured or executed by the SAVAK
Middle class prevented from participating in gov't, intellectuals turned against gov't and to communism, and clergy offended by modernization Reasons the 1979 Revolution Occurred The 1979 Revolution in Iran occurred due to:
Social and Cultural concerns
The coming of the revolution The Shah spent $100,000 million on a celebration for the Iranian monarchy and many Iranians found this disrespectful
In 1976 the Shah was in the midst of changing Iran's calendar by replacing the Islamic calendar with the one called Shahanshah.
This new calendar caused confusion and Muslims found it offensive
Jalal Ahmad published Gharbzadegi, which criticized Iran's imitation of the Western model and got many supporters on board the newspaper's revolutionary ideas
Under Shah's reform women were given more rights, such as the right to vote, admittance to Universities, being able to wear Western fashion and present themselves as electoral candidates.
Expanded rights for women limited to upper class.
Citizens had high expectations because of the Shah's promises, but little change actually occurred and women joined the revolutionary cause Coming of the Revolution Protests about gov't criticism of the Ayatollah Khomeini led to...
The regime ended the Shahanshah era calendar, closed gambling houses, and released numerous political prisoners
The Shah and his family left the country for an apparent vacation and the government was left to liberal democrat Shapoor Bakhitar.
Shah's departure caused celebrations everywhere.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini took over the regime and hired his own Prime minister to challenge the existing government.
On February 8th a mutiny between air force technicians caused an uprising. On the 11th the armed forces declared loyalty to Khomeni and the government of Bakhitar had fallen. Social Injustice Mohammad Reza Shah ruled over Iran for 25 years after he came to power
The main goal of the Shah was to modernize Iran, although foremost it was necessary for the Shah to consolidate his political position to gain support.
In an attempt to remove groups which opposed his ideas The Shah disbanded many parties such as the National Front and the Tudeh Party.
Shah wanted to prevent other political parties from becoming so empowered that they could possibly challenge his authority, therefore this meant dismemberment and imprisonment of the members of parties with ideology that conflicted with The Shah.
Thus producing, “Yes your majesty” parties, which acted in total subservience to The Shah
These actions of the Shah led to the Revolution because they created a backlash from many of the people Iran, many Iranians opposing the Shah’s unchecked power, and his ability to commit such heinous social-injustice. Foreign Policy The Shah spent millions of dollars on US weaponry which introduced American advisers and business interests, which was viewed negatively by the native Iranians.
To ensure the safety of Americans The Shah passed a law protecting all Americans for Iranian prosecution by law, excusing crimes as severe as murder. This meant protection from all ramifications by way of the Iranian Courts.
The actions of the Shah as it pertains to foreign policy with the U.S. created severe opposition which led to the eventual revolution, because many Iranians disapproved of The Shah’s attempts at westernization, and his disposal of the ancient regime. Reforms of the Shah The reforms such as, “The White Revolution,” made by Shah were supported by many although others believed the reforms did not contribute to the desired socio-economic changes.
The reforms also had many adverse effects such as farmers being forced to move to poverty ridden cities because they could not maintain their land, many educated Iranians were sent to the villages, however without appropriate infrastructure they were unable to fulfill their objectives, and returned home with criticism to the Shah’s regime.
The Shah’s wide disapproval stemmed from the conservatives who despised his radical reforms and attempts to change the political and social structure of the country of Iran, although the disapproval spread throughout Iran as time progressed due to the oppressive nature of the Shah’s regime. This widespread discontentment from the Iranian people caused the Iranian people to seek change, thus producing The Iranian Revolution.