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on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Timeline

1200 BCE- 2000 BCE 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Magna Carta signed circa 1215 France and England go to war 1224 (ends in 1227) Scotland is temporarily independent c. 1297 Cursor Mundi written (anon) c. 1300 The Divine Comedy by Dante is written c. 1307 The Salic Law is introduced in France excluding women from succession to the throne. (1328) The Hundred years war between France and England begins. 1337-1453 Black Plague arrives in Britain 1348-1350 Piers Plowman written approx. 1362 The Great Schism (papal rivalry) 1378 The Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer. C. 1387-1400 Peasant Revolt led by Wat Tyler in 1381 Confessio Amantis written by John Gower, c. 1390 Franciscan order found by Saint Frances of Assisi 1216 Duccio produces many artworks
including The Maestà (1250) The Illuminated manuscript, Codex Gigas (aka the "Devils Bible") is completed 1229 Lorenzetti creates the "Effects of Good Governance". 1338 Joan of Arc leads French against English, captured by Burgundians (1430) and turned over to the English, burned at the stake as a witch after ecclesiastical trial (1431) The War of the Roses between the English houses of Lancaster and York (1455-1485). The Renaissance begins c.1400 Gutenburg introduces the printing press to Europe. 1455 The Tudor dynasty is established in 1485 The Height of the Renaissance: Leonardo Da Vinci creates the Mona Lisa (1503), Michelangelo finishes his masterpiece David (1504), and completes the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1512) Henry VIII ascends the English throne in 1509 (dies in 1547, he is followed by Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey and Mary I). Elizabeth I ascends in 1558. Martin Luther sparks the Protestant Reformation in Germany, 1517. The birth of Calvinism, 1536 King Henry VIII breaks away from the Catholic Church and appoints himself head of the English church, 1535. French Religious wars begin in 1561 (ends in 1685) Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar, 1582 Spanish Armada defeated by the English, 1588 Machiavelli writes The Prince in 1513 The Last Supper is completed by Da Vinci, 1498 Bosch completes the Temptation of Saint Anthony, c. 1500 Don Quixote de la Mancha by Cervantes is written, 1605 Jamestown, Virginia, established—first permanent English colony on American mainland. 1607 French colony established in Quebec in 1609 The English civil war breaks out between the Roundheads and Royalists, 1642. Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector, monarchy restored after his death with the ascension of Charles II in 1661. Rembrandt paints the Night Watch, 1642. The Thirty Years War breakouts in central Europe, 1618 Great Plague spreads in London, 1665. Great Fire of London burns for 3 days in 1666. Milton completes his Magnum Opus, Paradise Lost in 1667. Thought to be the greatest epic poem in the English language. Moliere completes Tartuffe in 1664 William Shakespeare produces numerous works throughout his lifetime, first published c. 1593. John Locke's Human Understanding is published, 1690. Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan is published, 1651 The United Kingdom is formed in 1707 De praestigiis daemonum is published by Johan Weyer in 1563 Bethlam or "Bedlam" hospital was founded in 1247, later confiscated and used for "lunatics" in 1377 Isaac Newton's Principia is translated from Latin to English 1729 Beginning of the Enlightenment period, C. 1700 The beginning of the Renaissance, C. 1350 Encyclopédie is published in 1751, aka the "bible" of the enlightenment The 7 year war begins in 1756 (it ends in 1763) Samuel Johnson's Dictionary is Published in 1755 Voltaire's Candide is published in 1759 Jean Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract is published in 1762 James Watt invents the Steam Engine in 1765 Deceleration of Independence Signed in 1776 Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is published in 1781 French Revolution begins in 1789 (ends in 1799). Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are executed in 1793 initiating the Reign of Terror. Reign of Terror ends with execution of Robespierre. Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman is published in 1792 1799: Rosetta Stone discovered in Egypt The Rococo style flourishes c. 1700 Portrait of Madame de Pompadour. 1756 Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1767 Versailles is built in 1624 Jean-Honoré Fragonard, A Young Girl Reading, 1776 1800: Napoleon conquers Italy, firmly establishes himself as First Consul in France. Alessandro Volta produces electric battery in 1800 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland established with one monarch and one parliament; Catholics excluded from voting. (1801) Napoleon transforms the Consulate of France into an empire, proclaims himself emperor of France, systematizes French law under Code Napoleon. 1814 Thomas Paine's publishes the Rights of Man in 1791 French defeated by allies (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Portugal) in War of Liberation. Napoleon exiled to Elba, off Italian coast. Bourbon king Louis XVIII takes French throne. (1814) George Stephenson builds first practical steam locomotive in 1814 First passenger-carrying railroad in England. 1825 Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce takes the world's first photograph. 1826 1833: Slavery abolished in British Empire. Charles Babbage invents “analytical engine,” precursor of computer. 1837 Morse patents the telegraph. (1844) Edgar Allan Poe publishes The Raven and Other Poems. 1845 Failure of potato crop causes famine in Ireland. 1846 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels's Communist Manifesto is published. 1848 Britain and France join Turkey in war on Russia (Crimea). 1854 Tennyson's Charge of the Light Brigade is published 1854 William Blake publishes The Marriage of Heaven and Hell in 1793. “If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, Infinite. For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things thro' narrow chinks of his cavern.” Flaubert's Madame Bovary is published in 1856 The advent of the industrial revolution,
c. 1750 Charles Darwin's Origin of Species is published in 1859 J. S. Mill's publishes Utilitarianism in 1861 Joseph Lister begins performing antiseptic surgery, Gregor Mendel's Law of Heredity is published and Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in 1865 The Eiffel Tower is completed in1889 Mendeleev's periodic table of elements is completed in 1869 1870: Franco-Prussian War (to 1871): Napoleon III capitulates at Sedan. Revolt in Paris; Third Republic proclaimed. 1887: Nietzsche publishes On the Genealogy of Morality. Jules Verne's Around the World in 80 Days in 1872. 1873: Economic crisis in Europe. Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone in 1876. Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake is completed in 1877 Thomas A. Edison invents practical electric light in 1879. 1793 David completes the Death of Marat Berlin West Africa Conference held in Berlin (lasting until Feb. 1885), at which the major European nations discuss expansion in Africa. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet. 1887 George Eastman's box camera, the Kodak, is invented in 1888 Jack the Ripper leaves a string of unsolved murders in London. 1888 Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court is published in 1889. X-rays discovered by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen. Auguste and Louis Lumière premiere motion pictures at a cafe in Paris in 1895. Marconi receives first wireless patent in Britain. 1896 (leading to the invention of the radio) Theodor Herzl launches Zionist movement in 1897 Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium and polonium 1898. 1899: Boer War in South Africa (ends in 1902) Sigmund Freud Publishes The Interpretation of Dreams in 1900 and his theory on human sexuality in 1905. 1905: Albert Einstein Theory of Relatively Schlieffen Plan proposed in 1905, strategic plan for victory in a possible future war Key:

Social, Political and Economic events

Literature and Inventions

Art and Music

Madness World War I (1914-1918) World War II (1939-1945) The Great Train Robbery, the first silent movie is released in 1903 Penicillin is Discovered by Alexander Fleming and Mickey Mouse is created by Walt Disney in 1928 The first talkie is released, the Jazz Singer, in 1927 The silent horror masterpiece, Nosferatu, is released in 1922 1929: Wall Street crashes, the Great Depression starts Nuremberg trials begin post WWII in 1945 UN is founded in 1945 NATO is formed and Germany is partitioned in 1949 The structure of DNA is discovered in 1953 The Warsaw pact is signed in 1955 1957 is the dawn of the "Space Age" with the launch of Sputnik 1 1958: Invention of the optical disc and the cassette tape The Beatles are formed in 1960 The Berlin Wall is built, 1961 May 1968 protests in France occur ARPNET, a precursor to the internet is created in 1969 1969: Woodstock The Troubles in Ireland begin in 1968 Australopithecus afarensis or Lucy is discovered in Ethiopia in 1974 The first mass produced personal computers are sold in 1977 Artificial Insulin is invented in 1978 Smallpox is eradicated in 1979 Margret Thatcher becomes the first female prime minister in 1979 The Falklands war occurs between the UK and Argentina in 1982 British miners strike, 1984 (ends 1985) First use of DNA fingerprinting in 1985 Chernobyl disaster occurs, 1986 Stock Market crashes in 1987 causing world-wide recession Construction of the Channel tunnel begins in 1988 The Fall of the Berlin Wall and end of the Soviet Bloc, 1989. Germany is reunified in 1990. The World Wide Web is invented in 1990 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change releases its first assessment report, linking increases in carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere, and resultant rise in global temperature, to human activities. (1990) The European Union is created in 1992 End of Apartheid in South Africa in 1994 Foucault publishes Madness and Civilization in 1965 Dolly the sheep is the first successfully cloned animal, 1996. Good Friday Agreement ends the the Troubles in Ireland, 1998. Present Day Art Periods of the 19th century:
Art and Crafts
Fauvism The Nightmare is painting by Anglo-Swiss artist Henry Fuseli is completed in 1781 Art movements of the 20th century:
Art Deco
Pop Art
Minimalism Literary figures of the 1800's:
Charles Dickens
Jane Austen
Henry David Thoreau
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Lord Byron
Herman Melville
Walt Whitman
John Keats
Lewis Carroll
Mark Twain
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Leo Tolstoy
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Marcel Proust
Gustave Flaubert
Oscar Wilde
Arthur Conan Doyle
The Bronte Sisters
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Kate Chopin
Walt Whitman
Mary Shelley
Edith Wharton
Bram Stocker
Elizabeth Gaskell
.....to name but a few Literary figures of the 1900's:
Virginia Wolf
Ernest Hemingway
John Steinbeck
Douglas Adams
Rudyard Kipling
Jack Kerouac
J. R. R. Tolkien
F. Scott Fitzgerald
James Joyce
Franz Kafka
Harper Lee
George Orwell
J. K. Rowling
Truman Capote
C. S. Lewis
Roald Dahl
Samuel Beckett
T. S. Eliot
Maya Angelou
Vladimir Nabokov
William Faulkner
Sylvia Plath
Isaac Asimov
Ted Hughes
Michael Rosen
....to name but a few Catherine De Pizan publishes The Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry, the first book on warfare to be written by a woman in Europe. Published in 1488 in French and a year later in English The Baroque period (c. 1600) in art flourishes, with
artists such as Caravaggio, Artemisia Gentileschi, Bernini, Vermeer, Rembrandt and Reubens producing many works. Extras: Dickens publishes Oliver Twist as a serial, later to be collected into a novel. (1837-1839) Lazar-House laws are established in 1226 by Louis VIII of France (Foucault, p 3, 1965) Saint Bartholomew's Lazar House is closed in 1627, with only two patients. It opened in 1078. (Foucault, p 7, 1965) The Narrenschiff is created in 1549 Mathias Grunewald completes the Temptation in 1516 1656: A decree founds the Hôpital-Général in Paris, which eventually led to the Great Confinement (Foucault, p39, 1965) Zuchthausern house of correction is opened in Hamburg (1620). Up until the mid 17th century, madness was thought to be the byproduct of a disturbance in the Humors (Foucault, p 119, 1965) 1785: Francois Doublet recommends "cauters, setons, superficial abscesses, inoculation of scabies" if bleedings, purges, baths, and showers do not cure mania. Descartes completes La description du corps humain in 1647 "Cogito Ergo Sum" The 19th century marks the birth of Psychoanalysis (Foucault, p 278, 1965) Physician claims one quarter of all women in England are suffering from Hysteria. (1859) Brant publishes a poem, the"Ship of Fools", in 1494.
"it marks a point in European culture where a dialogue between reason and unreason became central." First edition of Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy. What it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics and several cures of it... Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically opened and cut up. (1621) The Vagrancy Act is created in 1744 The end of the 18th century marks the appearance of asylums in Britain Suicide is not a crime in the French Penal Code of 1810. It remained a crime in England and Wales until 1961 George, Prince of Wales, became Regent, after the final descent of George 3rd into insanity. (1811) George Combe's Elements of Phrenology published. Phrenology was the identification of an individual's faculties by feeling the shape of the skull. (1824) Wilkie Collins publishes the Woman in White in 1860 The Suffragettes movement wins the right to vote in the UK. (1928 ) The Who is formed in 1964 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family are assassinated in 1918, sparking the eventual formation of the soviet union. Edward Jenner successfully inoculates a patient against Small Pox in 1796 The Luddite movement is formed, protesting the industrial revolution. 1811 Barbiturates come into use to calm down or sedate adults. (c. 1930) Valium is introduced to the market, c. 1960. (it was the top selling pharmaceutical from 1969 to 1982) SSRI's, such as Prozac and Zoloft, are introduced c. 1980. 1854: Broad Street cholera outbreak, John Snow founds Epidemiology based on his research and discovers that Cholera is a water-born disease. The British NHS is founded in 1948. Ada Lovelace invents the first computer program in 1843
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