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Rizal in Peninsular Spain
Transcript of Rizal in Peninsular Spain
Rizal left Calamba on May 1, 1882 and was able to reach Manila after ten hours of journey via a Carromata. No one from among the family members of Rizal knew his departure for Spain, except Paciano, Saturnina, his uncle Antonio Rivera and a few friends. The trip was kept secret to avoid detection by Spanish authorities, especially the friars. His brother Paciano did everything to ensure that Rizal can leave the country secretly. He secured Rizal's passport with the name Jose Mercado.
Rizal stayed in Manila for two days before his trip to Spain. He was scheduled to depart from Manila on the 3rd day of May (Zuleta, 2004). He then woke up early, heard the mass at Santo Domingo Church in the walled City and then proceeded to Pasig River to board the steamer Salvadora, bound in Singapore.
Rizal's Secret Departure
From manila, the Salvadora sailed for Singapore. At first he felt very sad leaving his country and family. He tried to observe people and things around him and noted many Spanish-speaking travelers spoke ill of the country. To entertain himself, Rizal made Sketches of his fellow passengers and things he saw along the way.
Rizal reached Barcelona on June 15, 1882.
Rizal's trip from the Philippines to Barcelona had important consequences for him. First, owning to his interaction with foreign nationals on the board the Salvadora and Djemnah, there was a sudden change in his religious outlook. He started becoming inattentive to saints and patron saints. Instead on calling on them for guidance and protection while on the journey to spain, Rizal prayed directly to God. A second change in Rizal was the melting down of his Social complex. As a proof, he was able to get along well with Spaniards on board the foreign vessel, as well as with other nationals who were with him in his trip to spain.
Itenerary To Spain
Rizal was welcomed by the Filipinos in Barcelona, most of who were his former schoolmates at Ateneo Municipal. The welcome party tendered to him was held at favorite coffee house at Plaza de Cataluna. After the usual exchange of toasts and news, Rizal joined his friends for a walk around the city. He was even able to see famous historical spots of Barcelona.
While in Barcelona, Rizal took time writing to his family, relatives and friends in the Philippines. In fact, he did not forget one of his missions-that on making a name for himself in the field of writing.
Rizal in Barcelona
Upon arriving at Barcelona, Rizal commenced his writing of nationalistic articles. the first of these was the essay entitled,
El Amor Patrio
or Love if Country. Rizal wrote this essay when he was still 21 years old, under the pseudonym laong laan. It came out on August 20, 182 in the Diaryong Tagalog in Manila. For the first time, he used the term
) in referring to Spain.
El Amor Patrio (love of country)
Rizal Moves to Madrid
Rizal decided to move to the capital city of Spain in September, 1882 to resume his studies. He enrolled in philosophy and letter and licentiate in Medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid. Despite his very busy and rigid schedule, he took lessons in painting and sculpture at the Academia de San Fernando; lessons in fencing at the Schools of Sanz and Carbonell; and lessons in English, French and German in Madrid Ateneo. He even Contemplated taking the examination in Roman law for possible enrollment in law.
Rizal and the Filipino Expatriates in Madrid
Despite Rizal's hectic schedule in his studies, he took time to associate with the Filipino expatriates in Madrid. Here, he met Pedro Paterno, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Gregorio Sanciano, Juan Luna, Felix Hidalgo, Marcelo del pilar, and lot more. He became closely associated with Jaena and Del Pilar. The three of them later on, came to be called the Triumvirate of the Propaganda Movement.
Rizal Joins the Masonry
Living in Madrid exposed Rizal to Liberal ideas, stressing the value of individual freedom of action on matters of religion and expression. Imbued with the vitality of youth and idealism, he became fascinated with the manner by which Spanish masons in Madrid discussed political issues fearlessly. He was overwhelmed by their progressive ideas on government, politics, and religion. Thus, he joined the Masonry for the following probable reasons; the abuses committed by the friars against the Filipinos; his association with many masons; and the possible assistance the masons can extend him in his struggle against Spanish tyranny and oppression. He became a Master Mason in lodge Solidaridad on November 15, 1980.
Rizal's Affair to Consuelo
Rizal's Toast to Luna and Hidalgo
While Rizal was in Madrid , a very heartening news made the Filipino expatriates. Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo emerged winners in painting, the Spolarium; while Hidalgo, a silver medal for his entry, Christian Virgins Exposed to the populace. A banquet was tendered in honor of these two Filipino artist at the Cafe Ingles on June 25, 1884, with Rizal delivering the keynote speech.
Consuelo Ortiga y Perez
Rizal's Age: 21 - 22
Where they met: Rizal frequented to the home of Don Pablo Ortiga y Rey, the former city mayor of Manila.
Reason of Separation: Rizal's romance with Consuelo did not turn into a serious affair; he decided to take a step back for two reasons; First, he was still engaged to Leonor Rivera; Second, he was aware of his friend's affection to Consuelo.
Dona Teodora's Reactions on Rizal's Speech
News of Rizal delivery of the Brindis reached the Philippines due to the full coverage given by the Madrid Press to the occasion. Nonetheless, Rizal was not cognizant of the consequences of his speech. Rizal's Mother became ill, as his son became the talk of the town and the friars in Calamba. Thus, in her letter to Rizal she advised him to refrain from writing articles that might offend the friars and the regime; and that he should not fail in his duties as a Christian. Finally, she warned Rizal not to continue pursuing further studies since she had that fear that it could cause him death later.