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Civil Rights Movement Events
Transcript of Civil Rights Movement Events
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Little Rock 9
The Brown vs. Board of Education ruled segregated schools as unconstituitional in 1954 but this order still faced resistance. On September 4, 1957, nine African Americans were enrolled in Central High in Arkansas. In response, Governer Faubus sent Arkansas National Guard to stop them. The Little Rock were finally able to attend their first full day when President Eisenhower sent the Army's 101st Airborne Division to escort them.
The Freedom Rides
The Supreme Court decides to end segregation in bus terminal facilities, inspiring the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee to test the new policy with the first Freedom Ride
The first Freedom Ride, with 7 black and 6 white riders, departs from Washington, D. C. on two buses
Riders are assaulted by a mob at a bus station in rock Hill, South Carolina; upon entering Alabama, the second bus is surrounded, has its tires slashed, and is burned; a mob armed with iron pipes beats and hospitalizes many riders
The first ride ends in Birmingham, Alabama when no bus will take the riders on to Montgomery
The Second Freedom Ride
Determined to reach New Orleans and to not be stopped by violence, the SNCC plans a second Freedom Ride
8 black and 2 white riders depart from Nashville
The riders are jailed in Birmingham, Alabama because of rioting; President John F. Kennedy informs the governor of his responsibility protect interstate travelers
A bus escorted by police takes the riders to Montgomery, Alabama where the escort leaves; a crowd gathers, beating newsmen and all the riders; the crowd is broken up by police with tear gas; Dr. Martin Luther King addresses the crowds
Second ride ends in Jackson, Mississippi when riders are arrested for using white waiting rooms and bathrooms
Photo Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/09/the-little-rock-nine/380676/
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was initiated because of the arrest of Rosa Parks. The entire boycott lasted thirteen months. To attempt to prevent the boycott, those in office charged more taxes on taxis that would transport blacks. The MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association), who organized the boycott in the first place, began a carpool system to avoid the problems involved with the extra taxes. The boycott was no longer needed once the US Government banned segregation on buses.
Colleen Clauss, Carla Rendon and Sarah Ruby
Rosa Parks was an avid member of NAACP and helped initiate the Montgomery Bus Boycott and argubly with it, the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was riding the bus home after work when she was ordered to give her seat up to a white man. She refused and was arrested
and the Montgomery Improvement
Association organized the bus boycott.
Events in the North
The Philadelphia chapter of the NAACP is founded
Mobs attack black migrants seeking jobs in previously all-white workplaces and neighborhoods
Racial discrimination in public places is banned in Pennsylvainia
Philadelphia hosts the second national convention of the National Negro Congress
President Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802 banning racial discrimination in defense industries
he NAACP leads a transit strike; President Franklin Roosevelt orders the Army into Philadelphia to stop white transit workers striking to protest a federal order to hire black drivers
Categorizing help wanted and housing ads in the newspaper by race is banned
93% of black workers surveyed believe the city’s employers racially discriminated in their hiring
400 Ministers leads consumer boycotts against discriminating employers
March on Washington
On August 28th, 1963, 250,000 people gathered in Washington, D.C., to support racial equality. A. Phillip Randolph came up with the idea. His associate, Bayard Rustin, came up with the organization and details. The "I Have a Dream Speech," by Martin Luther King Jr., was given at this event. After the march, the leaders of this event, including King, met with President Kennedy, who supported them.
The Birmingham Campaign was an assortment of various lunch counter sit-ins, boycotts, and marches on city hall in order to protest segregation. These were peaceful protests; however, those who participated were met with violence from police officers. Dangerous, high-pressure fire hoses and attack dogs were used against the protesters, which included women and children. This event brought the state of the south to the attention of those who were unaware of it. The campaign ended victoriously, and protesters got what they demanded for: most public places such as restaurants were desegregated, protesters were released from jail, and plans were formed to help improve the lives of blacks as well as maintain the integration.
Civil Rights is still huge in America today--people are still rallying for the rights of Hispanics, women, and homosexuals as well as African Americans. Recent events, such as the protests in Ferguson, are evidence of this. We, as a nation, need to remember the events of the past, and apply our knowledge gained from them to current and future civil rights problems in order to have equality for all.
Images of the Birmingham Campaign
Images source: Wikipedia
"African Americans: Civil Rights and Social Reform (1950s-1970s)." California Cultures.
University of California, n.d. Web. 23 Jan. 2015.
Countryman, Matthew J. “Why Philadelphia?” Civil RIghts in a Northern City: Philadelphia.
Temple University Libraries, n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2015.
"Emmett Till." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 23 Jan. 2015.
“Greensboro 1960.” History Learning Site.co.uk. 2014. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
History.com Staff. “Integration of Central High School.” History.com. A+E Networks, 2010.
Web. 20 Jan. 2015.
History.com Staff. “Rosa Parks.” History.com. A+E Networks, 2009. Web. 20 Jan. 2015.
“Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956).” Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom
Struggle, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
“Official Program for the March on Washington (1963).” Our Documents. Our Documents,
n.d.Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
Shay, Alison. “Remembering the Birmingham Campaign.” Publishing the Long Civil Rights
Movement RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2015.
“SNCC—Events: Freedom Rides.” Six years of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2015.
Mongomery Bus Boycott
Little Rock 9
The Freedom Rides
Backlash of Integration
Events in the North
On August 24, 1955, Emmett Till visited his relatives in Mississippi.
He went to a grocery store and flirted with the store owner’s wife.
-Four days later, August 28, 1955, Bryant and his brother kidnapped him, brutally murdered him, and threw him into a river
- His mother chose to let the casket open to "let the world see what has happened, because there is no way I could describe this. And I needed somebody to help me tell what it was like."
-The trial held on September 19, 1995, Moses Wright, Emmett's great uncle, stood in front of all-white jury which was dangerous for black people to do
- Seeing Emmet Till lead to a national outcry and a demand for justice
-Roy Bryant and his brother are acquitted from charges on September 23
- Sparked the Civil Rights Movement when it inspired Rosa Parks to take a stand
Integration fueled the fire of several pro-segregation groups, such as the KKK. Not only was the racism prominent in the South, it spread throughout the country, even to California.
"I thought about Emmett Till, and I couldn't go back [to the back of the bus]." — Rosa Parks
Backlash of Integration
"People always say that I didn't give up my seat because I was tired," wrote Parks in her autobiography, "but thst isn't true. I was not tired physically...No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in."
Video link: www.history.com/topics/black-history/central-high-school-integration