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The Chemistry of Antacids and Acid Reflux

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Stefan Crespo-Sharkey

on 9 December 2012

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Transcript of The Chemistry of Antacids and Acid Reflux

What IS heartburn? Gastric Acid Composition Antacids Well... It's like this... Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Potassium chlorate (KCl) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Highly acidic (pH ~ 1.5-3.0 naturally) Enzymes (Peptin) HCl Common Acid Reflux Basically... And other things... ... Sour taste? Pain HEARTburn? More like heartBURN Shortness of breath Hoarseness of voice? Free floating H+ ions Non-ionized HCl Titrable HCl All of these will contribute
to the functionality of antacids Esophageal sphincter becomes weakened Gastric acid freely sloshes into esophagus Hits the target for massive damage Our sphincters are affected by... Mostly diet (overeating, food choice, ect.) Sometimes pregnancy, tight clothing or even too much exercise There are many different causes for acid reflux Antacids By chemistry: a substance that raises the pH of a solution through reaction By us: a predominantly over-the-counter consumable drug that aids in the neutralization of the stomach acids Composition of typical brand-name antacids include: Flavorers/sweeteners Other compounds(for effects aside from pH neutralization) The active ingredients Active ingredients of our antacids NaHCO 3 Sodium bicarbonate Mg(OH) 2 Magnesium hydroxide CaCO 3 Calcium Carbonate Al(OH) 2 Aluminum hydroxide Active ingredients The functioning componet of a medicinal drug Most function though reactions In this case, they will be the chemical antacids Stoichiometry of the active ingredients NaHCO 3 Al(OH) 2 Mg(OH) 2 CaCO 3 + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 0(l) + CO (g) 2 2 + 3HCl(aq) + 2HCl(aq) + 2HCl(aq) AlCl (aq) + 3H 0(l) 2 3 MgCl (aq) + 2H 0(l) 2 2 CaCl (aq) + H 0(l) + CO (g) 2 2 (aq) (s) (s) (s) 2 The reactions will consume variations of HCl and, in the case of antacids, raise the pH due to lack of strong acids Efficiency? Evaluating "efficiency" is... For common consumers? The majority say the fastest acting Chemically? We have 2 ways... Potency Speed
of Reaction We are... Relating moles of the reagents in the stoichiometral models Using the relation to determine, per specific dose, how much HCl is consumed in the reaction For example... 1.00g NaHCO 1 mol NaHCO 1 mol HCl 1 mol HCl 84.00g NaHCO 3 3 3 0.0119 mol HCl neutualized CaCO 3 Mg(OH) 2 Al(OH) 2 NaHCO 3 0.0200 mol HCl 0.0385 mol HCl 0.0343 mol HCl 0.0119 mol HCl Many factors affect the speed of reaction Heat of solution Amount of molecules of reactants Movement Presence of foreign reactants There is no definitive factor All of this will relate to... Collision theory State of matter of the antacid (solid/liquid) Through a series of formulas... CaCO 3 Mg(OH) 2 Al(OH) 2 NaHCO 3 Fastest Mid Slow Very Slow A direct relation to potency,
higher HCl consumed = slower reaction time State of matter... matters
Solid state of mater = higher activation energy Side effects Products from the reactions must go somewhere General side effects Every commercial antacid will display these pH in the stomach is always raised Therefore, these will manifest in varying quantities and severities Loss of appetite Muscle weakness Tiredness Side effects specific to
active ingredients Calcium Carbonate Nausea or vomiting Constipation Unusual tiredness With the excess of CaCl transported to the kindeys... Sodium competes with calcium in reabsorption to the body With excess calcium traveling through the kidneys, not enough sodium will be absorbed to help transport water around the body Water is... pretty vital Magnesium Hydroxide Difficult and painful urination Irregular heartbeat Dizziness and/or lightheaded sensations Sodium bicarbonate Headache Diarrhea Stomach cramps Aluminum hydroxide Bone pain Discomfort Swelling of the wrists or ankles Antacid-like treatments Natural variety Home remedies NaHCO 2 = Aloe vera Ginger Turmeric
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