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Human Body Tour

Explore and learn about the human body!
by

Sreya Chamathil

on 8 April 2013

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Transcript of Human Body Tour

Welcome to the Human Body Tour. Today we will be visiting many of the most important systems in the body. Sit back, relax, and enjoy! Exciting Activities The Thorax Giant: Ride through the esophagus. Trendy Spots Watch as the liver produces and secretes bile. Exports and Imports Wastes from food are exported. Food is imported from mouth to the stomach. Special Precautions to take The stomach acid is very dangerous, so please be sure to wear your Personal Protection Equipment. The Excretory System Trendy Spots Take a dive in
the bladder! Exciting Activities The urethra has been experiencing some difficulties with traffic due to urethroliths. Please cooperate with the staff until these stones can be cleared out. If urethra is blocked while you are exiting, please do not panic and make your way to the rectum, where you can safely exit the body. Slide down the urethra to your exit. Feces is exported from the excretory system. Watch for stones. They might crush you on their way to exit the body. These can be found in the kidney, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Exports and Imports The Skeletal System Exciting Activities Rib Race: Compete with other tourists to the top of the ribs. Grand prize: Fried riblet dinner at the Craniarium Diner. The Nervous System Fun Activities in the Nervous System Watch dream movies in the Grand Stem Theater. Please refer to the hippocampus for your admission ticket. Trendy Spots BRAIN ESOPHAGUS HEART The Chord Cafe is one of the most exciting places in the body. While enjoying the delicious spinal fluid served there, you can experience everything the body is feeling at the moment. Circulatory System Imports & Exports ORAL CAVITY Digestive System Excretion: The process of expelling waste products What organs help with the excretory process? Lungs: Alveoli takes carbon dioxide from blood vessels
Liver: Converts toxic ammonia into urea to be excreted through urine
Kidneys: Filters the waste out of blood and collects it
Skin: Excretes waste products through sweat Exciting Activities Trendy
Spots Imports & Exports Dangers & Special
Precautions How is blood produced? What is atherosclerosis & Hypertension? During the ride, the arteries' pressure is
checked. This is called blood pressure.
Blood pressure is recorded using diastole,
the measure of pressure in the arteries
when the muscle contracts and systole,
the measure of the heart muscle is resting
between beats. Bone marrow produces red and white blood cells from stem cells in the marrow which develops in blood cells.
The spleen would then filter the blood by destroying blood cells who are about 120 days old, damaged and deformed. All throughout the tour, you will witness diseases that we are trying to cure. Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes for the clogging of our rides. The fatty deposits inside the arteries reduces blood flow to wherever is downstream from the narrowed artery. Hypertension is one of the leading causes to the speedup of the ride. The arteries become elevated and the heart has to work harder than normal to circulate blood. Though this is not a disease, it can trigger heart attacks and strokes. During the tour, your tour guides will explain how the heart beats. The heart beats are triggered by several nodes known as the SA and AV nodes.SA Node(natural pacemaker) starts the impulse in a small bundled specialized cells.The electrical pulse causes the atria to contract forcing blood into the ventricles. The AV Node which are smalle bundled specialized cells located in between the muscular walls of the artria and ventricle would then delay so that it gives the atria time to contract before the ventricles.The His-Purkinje Network is the pathway of fibers that sends impulses to the muscular walls of the ventricles forcing blood out of the heart to the lungs and/or body.SA Node fire again and the cycle starts all over. What is the difference between the Pulmonary
Circuit Package and the Systemic Circuit Package? In the Pulmonary circuit package, you will be able to witness the blood collecting oxygen and removing carbon dioxide to the air at the exchnge surfaces of the lungs. During this trip, the blood goes from right ventricle to the lungs and then the lungs to the heart at the left atrium.
In the Systemic circuit package, it includes the ride at no extra charge and you will be able to witness the blood going from the left ventricle around the body and back to the heart in the right atrium. During this trip, the blood would deliver oxygen and nutrients to the cells in the body, deliver chemical messages using hormones,collect harmful or useless metabolites and collect the products of digestion. What is RH factor? An antigen that exists on the surface of red blood cells in most people. Nutrients and oxygen
are imports. Carbon dioxide and waste are exports. FYI: Components of Blood Plague and waste may
trap you, so be sure to
wear a plague-repellent
bodysuit. Why Visit the Circulatory System? You can witness the functions of the heart
such as the transportation of gases, transport of nutrients like glucose, and transportation of wastes from cells to the organs that eliminate them. The circulatory system contains cells that fight infections and defend against pathogens, helps maintain the pH levels, concentration of fluids in the body, and the body temperature (homeostasis). The Right side of the heart cotains
de-oxygenated blood while
the left side of the heart contains
oxygenated blood . Places to See in the Digestive System! Oral Cavity (mouth) Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine The oral cavity contains salivary glands that help break down food. This is called chemical digestion, which starts in the mouth. The esophagus is a muscular tube that pushes food down into the stomach. Mechanical Versus Chemical Digestion process of physically breaking down food Mechanical and chemical digestion happen in the mouth. The salivary glands chemically break down food, while the teeth mechanically break down food. The esophagus, through a process called peristalsis, breaks down food mechanically. The stomach secretes gastric juices to break down the food. Chemical Digestion The small intestine contains enzymes to break down food. Chemical Digestion Mechanical Digestion The large intestine absorbs water from waste materials, so it is physical and not chemical breakdown. Special Precautions to take: Mechanical Digestion Chemical Digestion process of changing the properties of the food while breaking it down Both types of digestion are ways to break down food. While you're touring the liver, you may have the question... ...why is the liver so important in digestion? The liver
produces bile
processes essential nutrients from food
removes toxins from the body
makes proteins What is bile and why is it important in the digestive process? Bile is a thick fluid that is produced by the liver. It helps break food down, especially fat. Without bile, the body would develop long-term diseases that are difficult to cure. Interesting Sights to See Pancreas The pancreas secretes hormones and enzymes that help break down food. Its main function is to sense glucose levels in the body and release insulin, which helps the body store the glucose. Enzymes to Encounter Next, we are going to visit the enzymes that help break down foods in the digestive process. Amylase This enzyme breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars. Lipase The main function of lipase is to help digest fats. Protease This enzyme helps digest proteins. The kidneys filter the wastes out of blood. Each drop of blood passes through the kidneys at least 300 times a day. As the kidneys filter blood, the waste called urine is collects in the renal pelvis. Dr. Brachy says, "There are three types of muscle: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac." We hope you enjoyed the tour!! Avoid electric currents that are passing through the nerves. Special Precautions to Take A flexor would be when the biceps causes the bones of the forearm to become closer to the bone of the upper arm.
While the an extensors would be when the bicpes causes the bones of the forearm to be father to the upper bone of the arm. FAQ What is an all or none response? The "all or none" response means that either the system muscle fibers contract or they don't. There is no intermediate. Dangers & Special Precautions The nervous system is divided into central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS). Trendy Spots What occurs during a reflex arc? the pathway that your impulse travels
It includes the sensory muscles, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector
sensory neuron communicates with the motor neuron
Keep an eye out for signs of osteoporosis. You may fall into the holes caused by this disease. Sympathetic Parasympathetic Focuses on relaxation and rest
Body saves energy during this time by lowering blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature The "fight-or-flight" mode
Causes your blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature to increase During the rib race, you will be ask a series of questions
pertaining to the synovial joints in the body to be able
to advance to the next step. Synovial joints are filled with
synovial fluid which help lubricate and protect the bones.
Bursa sacks also have synovial fluid. Hints:
Ball and Socket- A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders.Hinge-A hinge joint allows extension and retraction of an appendagePivot- joints allow rotation arround an axis. The neck and forearms have pivot joints. In the neck the occipital bone spins over the top of the axis. In the forearms the radius and ulna twist around each other.Gliding-In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Midcarpal and midtarsal joints are gliding joints Compose-a-bone To compose a bone, each tourist will recieve 3 parts;
periosteum, compact bone and spongy bone.
Periosteum is the double layer tissue covering the compact bone. It also houses the bone forming cells called osteoblast and cannot be seen by the naked eye.
Compact bone is very hard, rich in nerves and hollow. It contains canals which are filled with blood vessels. One of the major canals is the Haversian canal.
Spongy bone is not actually spongy, but it contains the red marrow and the yellow marrow. The yellow marrow is stored while the red marrow is what makes red blood cells. During the tour, you will see the major bones
of the body. FAQ What is arthritis? How a Neuron Works
Neurons work by passing electrical signals. Starting with the axon, the neuron sends an electrical impulse of data through the arms. No two neurons actually touch; they just are very close to each other. The space between a neuron's axon and another neuron's dendrite is known as the synapse. When the neurons are passing information, the synapse is the portion that is "flinging" the data from one neuron to the other. This process is known as synaptic transmission.
Once the synaptic transmission occurs, the data enters through the dendrites. The electrical signal has now successfully transferred from the first neuron to the second one. The signal then moves to the axon and passes through the synapse to the next neuron's dendrite. In other words, a neuron works by being stations for the electrical signal. Or, it can be perceived as railroad tracks. The signal follows along this track. inflammation or stiffness
of a joint What is the difference between the appendicular skeleton package and the axial skeleton package?
Respiratory System This are the two most common tour packages bought in the skeletal system. The appendicular skeleton package includes a tour through the extemities while the axial skeleton inudes a tour through the central axis of the body. It consists of the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum or breastbone. The nostrils: Nostrils are involved in air intake, i.e. they bring air into the nose, where air is warmed and humidified. The tiny hairs called cilia filters out dust and other particles present in the air and protects the nasal passage and other regions of the respiratory tract.
Trachea: The trachea is also known as windpipe. The trachea filters the air we inhale and branches into the bronchi.
Bronchi: The bronchi are the two air tubes that branch off of from the trachea and carry atmospheric air directly into the lungs.
Lungs: The main organ of the respiratory system is lungs. Lungs are the site in body where oxygen is taken into and carbon dioxide is expelled out. The red blood cells present in the blood picks up the oxygen in the lungs and carry and distribute the oxygen to all body cells that need it. The red blood cells donate the oxygen to the cells and picks up the carbon dioxide produced by the cells.
Alveolus: Alveolus is the tiny sac like structure present in the lungs which the gaseous exchange takes place.
Diaphragm: Breathing begins with a dome-shaped muscle located at the bottom of the lungs which is known as diaphragm. When we breathe in the diaphragm contracts and flatten out and pull downward. Due to this movement the space in the lungs increases and pulls air into the lungs. When we breathe out, the diaphragm expands and reduces the amount of space for the lungs and forces air out. Function
support-provides structural support for the entire body
protection- surrounds soft tissue- ex. ribs and sternum protect the heart and lungs, - skull protects the brain
movement-skeletal muscle is attached to bone so it pulls on the bone when it contracts
mineral homeostasis
stores calcium and phosphorus-minerals are released into the blood when needed
blood cell production
red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells and other blood elements
storage
storage of minerals and lipids(fats)---yellow marrow stores fat --(found in long bones How can I learn more? Attend osteology school
and learn more about the difference between
ligaments and tendons.
Ligament connect bone to bone while
tendons connect muscles to bone Explain the function of the ribs and diaphragm in the breathing process. During inhalation, contraction of the diaphragm muscles and the external intercostal muscles increase the volume of the chest cavity, lowering the internal pressure thus air rushes into the lungs through the nares, pharnyx, trachea and bronchi. As the diaphragm and intercostals relax, the volume decreases, increasing internal pressure, air is exhaled. Explain how breathing rate is controlled. A respiratory control center at the base of your brain controls your breathing. This center sends ongoing signals down your spine and to the nerves of the muscles involved in breathing.These signals ensure your breathing muscles contract (tighten) and relax regularly. This allows your breathing to happen automatically, without you being aware of it. Dr. Brachy usually starts with explaining the function
and structure. The skeletal muscle is a muscle that can voluntarily moved. These muscle fibers appers stripped and contain one or more nuclei. The Smooth Muscle is a muscle you cannot control(involuntary) and lines internal organs, blood vessels, non striated have one nucleus per cell and organ foud in the respiratory an digestive system. The cardiac muscle is an invlountary muscle that can only be found in the hear. Structurally, these muscle fibers appear striated and contains one or more nuclei. Muscular System Take a tour the the ten major muscles. They
are the heart, pectoralis major (in the chest),gleuteus maximus (the butt cheek), quadraceps femorous (front of thigh),biceps femoris (back of thigh; composed of the long and short head),gastrocnemius (calf muscle), biceps brachii (front of upper arm), triceps brachii (back of upper arm), latissimus dorsi (part of back that gives V shape), trapezius (part of upper mid back). Describe what happens between the alveoli and the capillaries.
Simply put, it is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood in the lungs.The capillaries surround the alveolus and absorb the oxygen, which is then carried into the circulatory system. What is musle fatigue? How is the muscles, bones, and tendons related? Describe the effects of smoking on respiration.
A healthy lung has a kind of elasticity that helps the person breathe. However, a smoker’s lungs will not have that stretchiness and the person will not be able to breathe as deeply. The deposit of tar prevents dirt from being filtered out of the body properly and causes mucus buildup. When tar sticks to the cilia along the nasal passage, mucus cannot be released and will get clogged. Muscles,tendons,and bones are related because tendons connect muscle to bone and ligaments connect bone to bone.Tendons connect your muscles to your skeleton so that your muscles will make the bones move to were you need it to go. This can cause your trip to be stopped. During fatigue, the muscles will prevent it from doing any repetitive movement, actior or voluntry movement. This occurs from the depletion of the glycogen or the neurotransmitters in the tissue. Exciting Activities
-Diaphragm Bounce House. Cost: 3 molecules of oxygen per person.
Trendy Spots
-The Epiglottic Show! Watch the epiglottis prevent food from going into the windpipe.
Imports & Exports
-Carbon dioxide is exported. Oxygen is imported.
Precautions
-Make sure to wear oxygen masks. Too much carbon dioxide is dangerous.
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