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Zach Gallardo

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of Germany

Population 1. What is the population
and what is its rate of growth? -82,468,000 people -Population not doubling
since it has a negative
growth rate 2. Is it faster or slower
than the world's average? -World average: 1.096%
-Germany: -0.2%
-slower than the world average 3. What are the birth, death,
immigration, and emigration rates?
Does this data agree with the rate of population growth? -birth: 8.1/1000
-death: 11/1000
-immigration: 12.31%
-emigration: 5.78%
-Yes, this data agrees with the rate
of population growth. 4. Draw the population age structure.
Indicate how the age structure indicates
replacement fertility rate. -Germany below replacement fertility rate -bulge in middle shows people not having
enough children to replace themselves 5. What is its stage of the
demographic transition? -Beyond the demographic transition's end -very low birth/death rates
-migration of population out of the country 6. Is family planning working to shift
the transition to the right? Are these
problems with its population growth?
Explain. -Germany is already in the
last stage of growth.
-Family planning is used, but
not helpful to growth rate
since it's negative
-Population decreasing and
family planning speeds up this
process. 7. Describe the role (if any)
of family planning. -age structure around 40's
-fertility low: majority of woman having children
late in life (lower fertility rate) -Government assumes all citizens are
knowledgeable about contraceptives and
have sexual education
-presently, there is no increase in birth rate
or population -effective family planning may
actually cause a problem since
Germany needs population growth Introduction to Germany location -Central Europe
-neighboring countries: Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic Major languages: -95% German speaking
-immigrants add English, Turkish, Polish, and other languages Development -More developed country
-fifth largest economy in the world, but slow growing
-Europe's largest economy Indicators of Development GDP consumption by sector:
-agriculture (primary): 17%
-industry (secondary): 31%
-services (tertiary): 68% Low levels of agriculture suggests Germany has the necessary technology to use less people to produce food for the population. Their large service sector shows their economic activities have progressed from industry to services in order to support their aging population and their consumer/post-consumer society Economic Growth -slow economic growth
inefficient East German economy
underestimation of costs
high welfare, high unemployment, poorly developed service sector Ecological Footprint -5.08 hectares per person
-ranked 26th in the world
-Germany doesn't suffer from affluenza
due to high tax rates on consumer goods Native German Clothing Member Location Hello, my name is Germany Ecosystems 1. food web:
a. high resolution of free-living organisms
b. inclusion of metazoan parasites and infectious agents
c. ontogentic stages of parasites with complex life cycles 2. Gross and net primary productivity:
-significant increase of carbon uptake; forests act as carbon sink (NPP)
- 30% reduction in GPP over Europe due to future climate change 3. producers: cornflower, silver birch, Norway spruce
herbivores: Eurasian beaver, red deer, wild boar, Eurasian elk
carnivores: gray wolf, red fox, Eurasian badger, wildcat, lynx
omnivores: bear, raccoon
decomposers: fungi, earthworms, nematodes
scavengers: raven 4. Human impact on nutrient cycle:
-agriculture leeches nutrients from soil
-farmers add nitrogen fertilizer (NH4)
-acid rain changes pH of soil, may become toxic to trees
-fertilizers pollute water 5. research to study ecosystems
-Long Term Ecological Research (LTER-D) 1. biodiversity hotspots:
-none 2. fossil evidence of evolution
- new species of charadriiform taxon, turnipax mayer found in southern Germany
-allows recognition of previously unknown turnipax 3. climate affect natural selection in biomes
-climate changes breeding cycles
-ex: birds lay eggs earlier in life
-human impact on climate change select earlier breeding
-birds must adapt to rapid change in environment Biodiversity and Evolution 4. major extinctions
-late Dervunian mass extinction triggered by asteroid impact 5. Indicator and Keystone Species
-indicator: pike perch found in shallow lakes
-keystone: daphnids affect biomass size distribution and food web of plankton Aquatic Biodiversity (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr 1. aquatic biodiversity
-vertebrae parasites
-birds aquatic life in
Baltic Sea 2. plankton, nekton,
and benthos
-1700 species of phytoplankton
-1199 zooplankton
-442 phytobenthos
-1476 macrozoobenthos
-469 meiobenthos plankton:
-phytoplankton: autotrophic
base of marine food web
-zooplankton: heterotrophic
plankton eaten by fish phytobenthos:
-plants that inhabit the bottom the seas and fresh waters
-meiobenthos: invertebrates that live in marine and fresh water
macrozoobenthos: multi-celled animals that live at the bottom of bodies of water; live in sediments and detriment 3. ecological and economic services:
-cod, herring, salmon, and sea trout commercially fished
- ecotourism
-recreational boating
-beach recreation 4. humans degrade aquatic ecosystem
-eutrophication; human activities fertilize bodies of water with nitrogen and phosphorus
-changes animal and plant populations; degrade water and quality of habitat

-caused by runoff and intensive fishing
-damage to fish habitats and depleting fish resources
-pollution from agriculture kills fish, marine mammals, and seabirds
-PCB and DDT (chemical) pollution Biodiversity, Species Interactions, and Population Control 1a. interspecific competition: Geoica vs. Forda formicaria compete; death of forda formicaria and reduced its reproduction ... small 1b. parasite and host: milk samples from cattle showed parasite that invades cell types and tissues in cattle 1c. commensalism: sea urchins suitable host for marine worm 1d. predator and prey: gray wolf hunts deer 1e. mutualism: rice seedling and fungus produce endobacteria for production of phytotoxin 1. indicate specific examples from your country of the following: 2. indicate whether each population lives in populations or clumps 2a. clumps: bacteria attack in large sums
2b. clumps: transmitted through feces
2c. populations: live in coldest ocean temperatures
2d. clumps: wolves live and hunt in large packs
2e. clumps: fungus grow in clumps 3. Give two examples of r-selected and k-strategists k-strategists: mites, flies
r-strategists: beetles, butterflies 4. Describe some of the successions.
-forest are influenced by atmospheric pollutants
-secondary succession usually edaphic
-east and west Germany have different climax communities 5. For stable ecosystems, is it due to inertia or resilience?
-environment shows coherent patterns
-ecosystem will always eventually restore itself Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity 1. types of climates 1a. effect of global circulation
-in Ferrel cell; prevailing westerly winds
-large low pressure circulation moves weather west to east
-Foehn wind warms central Europe up to 30 degrees C
-precipitation dropped off at Alps (rain shadow) 1b. effect of ocean currents
-Great conveyor belt, warm current towards Europe
-increases average temperatures in similar latitude 1c. effect of latitude and topography
-latitude: lower insolation=cooler temperatures
-less collected solar radiation
-topography: mountains affect moisture
-rain on European side of Alps higher
-elevation=cooler tempertures 2. climate effect biomes
-temperate broadleaf forests; warmer continental
-20-60 in of precipitation throughout year
-oaks, beeches, and elms; mostly cut down for agricultural space
-some hunting preserves remain 4. human impact on biomes:
-cut down forests for agriculture, located on top of fertile soil
-trees harvested for hardwood furniture and timber
-cleared for cities
-plants domesticated for food in Europe (fruits, vegetables, and herbs) 3. climate graph Solar Radiation warm current Head Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body United Nations Environmental Issues: Germany No hotspots here. circular representation of Germany sources:
















http://www.indexmundi.com/facts/germany/water-pollution Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity 1. major threats to aquatic ecosystems and causes of these threats
-eutrophication from introduction of nutrients
-caused by agricultural runoff
-oil pollution
-irresponsible shipping
-average of 1 major shipping accident per year 1980-2008
-urban development
-increase human development 2. How are the marine ecosystems being sustained?
HELCOM (Baltic Marine Environmental Protection Commission/Helsinki Commission)
-reduce phosphorus pollution from agriculture
-reduced phosphorus pollution in water 20%, 1984-2008
-reduce nutrient input and eutrophication
-continue research on current status of marine ecosystems 3. How are the freshwater ecosystems being sustained?
Ruhr River, Oder River, and other major rivers
-allow natural migration of fish
-natural flow patterns allows fish to spawn
-investigate sediments (nursery for fish)
-improve water treatment and disposal
-NGO forming a plan for management 4. How are the wetland ecosystems being sustained?
-environmental monitoring
-resource planning
-currently large variations in wetland status and data
-cleared for expansion of agriculture and urban development
-estimated 237,100 ha lost 1950
-estimated 107,200 ha of wetland lost 1985 6. How is the country maintaining its aquatic biodiversity? Is the country a biodiversity hotspot and why?
-increase intensive farming=decrease in biodiversity
-increase water, soil, and air pollution with use of pesticides
-signed Convention on Biological Diversity in 2002-agreed to decrease the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010
-current state of Germany's economy makes conservation a low priority
-protect Baltic Sea: Exclusive Economic Zone
-Germany is not a biodiversity hotspot 1. Indicate three species that are extinct and/or endangered. Discuss the reasons and describe their instrumental value.
1. golden eagle: killed by wind turbines and habitat loss
-represents German culture
-predator balances populations of prey
2. European brown bear: poached for meat and fur and habitat loss
-produce rare hybrid of brown bear and polar bear
3. European wolf: continuous hunting and habitat loss
-vital to conserve herds and use as pest control 2. What green careers are or could be available?
-wind turbine industry
-current generation of solar cells and solar energy industry
-2012: 25% of Germany's energy is derived from sustainable sources-goal to reach 35% by 2020 3. What are the impacts of two introduced species and what can be done to control them?
-coypu: destructive feeding/burrowing behaviors
-destroys vegetation and marshland
-Siberian chipmunk: spread diseases (rabies)
-considered a low priority 4. What percentage of the country is protected land? Is poaching a problem and what is being done to prevent it?
-21.3% protected land
-poaching problematic; government has increased enforcement 5. What international and national legislation is helping protect wild species?
-Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act
-Endangered Species Act
-Migratory Bird Treaty Act
-Marine Mammal Protection Act Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach 1. What are the major threats to the terrestrial ecosystems and what are the causes of these threats?
-nitrogen threatens biodiversity
-impacts vegetation
-leaves land vulnerable 2. How are the forests managed and sustained?
-forests cover 1/3 area
-focus on commercial function
-protection of nature growing 3. How are the rangelands managed and sustained?
-German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) 4. Describe the system of national parks and nature reserves.
-established parks and laws enforced
-parks: Jasmund National Park; Muritz Nation Park
reserves: Bavarin; Lower Soxony 5. How is the country maintaining terrestrial biodiversity? Is the country a biodiversity hotspot?
-Swiss Federal Agency for Environment
-many diverse species in ecosystems but not a hotspot
-not in serious danger from humans
-Spreewald Biosphere Reserve
-Schaalsee Biosphere Reserve 5. Describe the system of aquatic reserves.
-human activity limited in protected areas
-limits on development, fishing, and removal of aquatic life of any aquatic life
-WPPA (World Database on Protected Areas) 161,000 protected areas in world-Protected Planet 1. What is the state of food security?
-3530 kcal/person/day
-secure food supply 2. What type of agriculture is used and is done sustainably?
-number of farms increase while production increases
-east 2 times as many farms as west
-renewable energy
-slightly sustainable
-still use pesticides and pollute air, soil, and water, although reducing 3. Describe the major types of soil.
-sand, loam, brown podzuls
-plenty fertile land
-most arable land under cultivation 4. Describe types of environmental problems with food production.
-fertilizer and pesticide pollution of air and water sources
-calcium, etc.
-fertilizers take natural nutrients from soil
-increase erosion 5. Describe major method of protecting crops from pests.
-drown insects
-remove damaged leaves or old foliage
-find pest resistant plants 3. What types of chemical hazards exist and how many deaths/year for each?
-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
-linked to 1million deaths per year (cancer) 2. What types of biological hazards exist and how many deaths/year for each?
-dermal exposure to chemicals
-linked to 60,000 deaths/year Environmental Hazards and Human Health 4. Describe the process the country uses to evaluate chemical hazards.
- Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compound in the Work Area (MAK Commission)
-advises public authorities on safety of chemicals and their health risks
-puts limits on exposure to volatile chemicals and dust, BAT values (biological tolerance values)
-analyzes chemical substances in air and biological materials
-publishes findings available to public Sustaining Biodiversity: A Species Approach Food, Soil, and Pest Management 1. Describe the effects of AIDS on the age pyramid.
-effects .5% of population
-no significant change on age pyramid Environment and Society
Trade-offs and Decision Government and Sustainability ongoing sustainable development
sustain raw materials
provide social opportunities for aging population
produce food to feed world set and met strict emission standards
30% of energy is renewable by 2020
higher energy efficiency with new technology Making Environmental Policy Increasing Environmental Security Uniqueness of Germany leaders of wind and solar energy
German Renewable Energy Resource Act
improved air quality with decreased pollution
US produces 104% more CO2/1000 people than Germany
health care
life expectancy 80 yrs 2004 Civil Crisis Prevention
balance human security and conservation
preserve resources for future generations
less dependent on fossil fuels Committee on Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS)
gives environmental topics priority base on impact and urgency Länder (Regional) government proposes policies
political parties debate policies
Bundestag legislature votes and debates
German courts rule on environmental legislation
common law Rational Decisions local sustainability projects
successful projects grow in scale
encourage citizen participation for more acceptance
pass multiple policies as a solution
small policies are more successful
more renewable energies to create jobs
stabilizes economy recently out of recession Role in UN Germany (Federal and Democratic Republics) both full members 1973
countries merged 1970
3rd largest contributor to UN budget Environmental World Views Environmental Education environmental education part of curriculum in West Germany
teach how to approach environmental issues
practice conservation and sustainability
70% of waste recovered and reused
citizens sort waste and dispose in separate bins work to preserve resources
reduce impact on climate
on way to becoming a zero waste country by 2020
improve energy efficiency
passed European Union legislation; 20% of Europe's energy renewable by 2020 Water Obtaining Water 65% groundwater; 21% surface water 9% springs; 5% bank filtration
water abundant, continuous quantity
high quality, pure, safe
99% users connected to public water system
water treated and reused Water Shortage Status groundwater shortages (65.5% drinking water)
2007: 11% population & 17% territory face water shortages
30 years, droughts projected increase, increase water shortages Dams: Pros and Cons Pros + Cons - renewable: pollution not created, reduces greenhouse gas emissions, reduce dependency on fossil fuels
affordable energy
does not require employees for operation
low maintenance
currently 3.5% of Germany's power high investment costs
dependent on precipitation
stagnation of river
loss of river and forest ecosystems
blocks fish spawning upstream
may break and flood downstream
reduced sediment flow increase beach erosion Flooding high risk=high priority
early warning systems for evacuation
23 flood control networks
secure dam construction with pump-able reservoirs
dike construction along rivers and Baltic Sea, 4500km of dike Water Pollution Causes Effects main cause: chemical pollution
discharge nitrogen and phosphorus agricultural pesticides and fertilizers
contamination from landfills
seeps into groundwater and contaminates streams, rivers, and surface water
sediment pollution from dams ground, surface, coastal waters monitored regularly; part of national program
numerous water policies including
polluter pays
waste water purification standards
pollutants cut off at source
polluted water sources=outbreaks of waterborne diseases
degradation of ecosystems: decrease waterfowl population Stream and Lake Pollution nutrient pollution, high BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand)
causes eutrophication with overgrowth of algae
lack of oxygen kills fish
discharge of nitrogen and pesticides from agriculture Sources of Drinking Water Pollution agricultural nitrate and pesticide pollution
Lander monitors levels of pollution
seeps into groundwater, accumulates
industrial organic water pollutants
increases BOD
other pollution from paper, food, and textile industries Sources of Ocean Pollution pollutants from rivers and streams contaminate ocean
same sources
industrial processes
agricultural and urban runoff Improve Water Pollution water utility companies pay farmers to use organic methods
reduces agricultural phosphorus and nitrate pollution
Lander government monitors status
standards for water quality set for treatment plants
fines for illegal discharge of polluted water Trust me, it's legitimate. sources Air Outdoor Air Pollution:
Problems and Sources Acid Deposition Indoor Air Pollution: Problems and Sources Air Pollution Action Climate Change Effects of Warmer Atmosphere Slowing Climate Change Ozone Depletion and Reduction generally, emissions decreased
high levels of nitrous oxide and ammonia
caused by emissions from vehicles, industry, power plants, and heating systems 1983, acid rain, deposition, and air pollution damages 34% of German forests
aquatic animals killed from acids and aluminum from streams and lakes
reproductive processes of animals interrupted (eggs and larvae die)
contamination of surface water sources
potential contamination of groundwater sources heating and cooking appliances
tobacco smoke
paints and solvents
dust mites, pollen, animal dander
mold and mildew Indoor Air Health Problems causes and aggravates chronic lung disorders:
eye, nose and throat irritation
lung cancer and heart disease (tobacco smoke)
shortness of breath and headache
nausea and dizziness Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environment Agency) reduce particulate matter emissions
tried low-emission zones
successful, but urban zones often exceeded
vehicles inspected and given sticker if meets emission standards (penalty if no sticker in zones)
EU standards for nitrous oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter (PM) increased temperature increases leishmaniasis
increase in lyme disease
decrease in glaciers and mountain snow pack
increase storms and more frequent extreme weather form warming oceans (ex stronger winds) storms and heavy rain
water scarcity
decrease agricultural productivity
increase forest fires
reduction of groundwater sources
different regions experience different affects stricter vehicle emission standards for various greenhouse gases
expansion of electric vehicle availability
charging stations being constructed
hyrdrocarbons, nitrous oxides, PM, etc.
European Union has no limits for carbon dioxide emissions
agreed to abide to Kyoto Protocol (reduce carbon dioxide emissions 8% below 1990)
government investment in renewable energy
solar, wind, geothermal overexposure causes sun burn and skin cancer
ozone hole in Arctic will move over Germany, Russia, China area
may be marked by increase instances of skin cancer
EU directive to phase out chluoroflurocarbons (CFC's) 1997
replace CFC's with hydroflurocarbons (HFC's); less harmful to ozone
agreed to phase out CFC's at Montreal Protocol Energy Geology and Nonrenewable
Minerals Geological Processes
and Hazards Mineral Depletion Mineral Sustainability Mineral Resources
and Problems Energy Efficiency
Renewable Energy Improve Waste and
Energy Efficiency Solar (Dis)advantages Wind (Dis)advantages Biomass
(Dis)advantages Geothermal (Dis)advantages Nonrenewable
Energy Major Energy Sources Waste Products (Dis)advantages of
Popular Energy Hydrogen (Dis)advantages sand and gravel, coal, petroleum, natural gas, limestone, hard coal, crude steel, cement, rock salt, clay, silica sand, gypsum, aluminum, copper, zing, potash, sulfur, lead
mining/exploitation of minerals regulated by law
consumption should not exceed rate of regeneration Germany population decrease 20% over next 50 years
therefore mineral resources will have a longer depletion time with less demand collect and research data
regulate pollution
expand and invest in renewable energy
urban planning http://visualization.geblogs.com/visualization/germanenergy/ #1. coal: advantages:combustible, cheap, highly available
disadvantages: non-renewable, fast depleting, high transportation costs, releases carbon dioxide
#2 oil: advantages: found around the world, transport using transfer ships and pipelines (cheap)
disadvantages: increasing costs with demand, releases carbon dioxide, depleting contributes to air pollution and the greenhouse effect
endangers global biodiversity
waste expensive to remove increased efficiency in transportation, households, industries, and buildings
new standards
expand usage of renewable energy
increases sustainability advantage: does not produce greenhouse gases; free generation in infinite supply, decentralization of energy (generate own energy)
disadvantage: cannot store effectively; not available during night; inefficient in capturing potential of sun's energy; high initial investment in solar panels advantages: no emissions, windmills take up less space than electric plants, generate energy in remote locations, infinite source of free energy
disadvantages: unreliable wind patterns, less efficient than fossil fuels, expensive building and construction harmful to wildlife, noise pollution advantages: infinite supply, minimal environmental impact, efficient and viable, available around world

disadvantages: contributes to global warming and particulate pollution when directly burned, expensive conversion to alcohol, small scale net loss of energy advantages: power comes directly from core; moderate net energy yield; limitless and reliable if managed; little air pollution; competitive cost

disadvantages: reservoir sites scarce; source depleted if not managed; noise and odor; land sinks; land damage involved for pipes and roads; degrades ecosystem from hot, corrosive water advantages: wasteproduct is water; doesn't destroy wildlife; energy comes from sun; non explosive; used in fuel cells

takes energy to produce; huge cost; major storage issues for individual transportation land slides
forest fires
occur seasonally depending on precipitation, climate, humidity, wind, etc.
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