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SATIRE

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by

E. Delfin

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of SATIRE

SATIRE
Vices and Follies
Greed
Envy
Gluttony
Lust
Pride/ Arrogance/ Hubris
Sloth
Wrath
Tools of a Satirist
Tone
Caricature
Hyperbole
Double Entendre
Puns
Parody
Innuendo
IRONY
Sarcasm
Caricature
A picture or description that ludicrously exaggerates the peculiarities or defects of persons or things.
Hyperbole
Hyperbole is simply an exaggeration of any given topic. Making a small blemish bigger or a hidden vice or folly larger in order to make it visible is one of the best ways to point out its existence to the audience or to the target itself.
A literary genre in which behaviors or institutions are ridiculed for the purpose of improving society. What sets satire apart from other forms of social and political protest is humor.
Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, it’s greater purpose is to expose humanity’s vices and foibles, using wit as a weapon and a tool as a means of inspiring societal change or reform.
Satirist often criticize society's
"Seven Deadly Sins"
Double Entendres and Puns
Any construction capable of conveying a double meaning is likely to be employed in satire, since multiple meanings form the basis of much of satire.
Innuendo
An allusive or oblique remark or hint, typically a suggestive or disparaging one.

Innuendos are a valuable tool for the satirist because it allows him to implicate a target by a completely indirect attack. This is especially useful when the target is dangerous, for it is often possible to deny the insinuation.
Irony
Irony is contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality.—between what is said and what is really meant, between what is expected and what really happens, or between what appears to be true and what really is true.
1. Verbal
2. Situational
3. Dramatic
Verbal Irony
When a writer or speaker says one thing but really means something quite different—often the opposite of what is said.
Situational Irony
When what actually happens is the opposite of what is expected or appropriate.
Dramatic Irony
When the audience knows something that a character in the play or story doesn’t.
Soliloquies often provide dramatic irony because the other characters are not aware of that character is saying to the audience.
Sarcasm
A sharply mocking or contemptuous remark.

Verbal Irony + Mocking/Mean Attitude = Sarcasm
Tone
Tone is simply the speaker and/or author's attitude toward a subject.

In satire, tone is often achieved through diction (word choice) and out-of-place juxtaposition.

Parody
A humorous imitation of serious works.
Types of Satire
Horatian
Juvenalian
Menippean
Horatian Satire
Playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle, mild, and light-hearted humor. It directs wit, exaggeration, and self-deprecating humor toward what it identifies as folly, rather than evil.
Juvenalian Satire
A more contemptuous and abrasive satire than the Horatian.
Juvenalian satire addresses social evil through scorn, outrage, and savage ridicule.
Often pessimistic, characterized by irony, sarcasm, moral indignation, and personal invective, with less emphasis on humor.
Strongly polarized political satire is often Juvenalian.
Menippean
Resembles Juvenal's ideas on satire; however, it lacks the focus of a primary target. Rather than a single target, it takes a scattergun approach, combining many different targets of ridicule into a fragmented satiric narrative.
Audience + Author's Intent
1. Those whom the author (or artist) believes to already be in agreement with their viewpoint. (those on your side)

2. Those whom the author (or artist) would like to ridicule for their opposing viewpoint. (those whom you will stealthily ridicule)

3. Those whom the author (or artist) believes may be persuaded through exposure to the satirical work. (the "swing" audience)

1. To show yourself intelligent and accomplished to those on your side.


2. To make those whom you disagree with look foolish.



3.To persuade to your point of view, those who are intelligent enough to understand irony and recognize the ridiculous (thereby "swinging" them to your side).

Understatement
Overstatement
Expressing an idea with less emphasis or in a lesser degree than is the actual case. The opposite of hyperbole. Understatement is employed for ironic emphasis.
Often employing the use of hyperbole to emphasize the point the author is trying to make.
*Note: Not all parodies are satire. This example is NOT an example of a satire. Why is that?
Unit Prompt
Read “A Modest Proposal” and other satirical selections.
Find two or three sources addressing an area of concern in humanity’s relationship with nature.
Use these sources to inform an original, satirical paper of at least 500 words.
The essay should use irony to highlight the absurdity of the issue or the logical gaps of the opposing arguments.
Develop and maintain a consistent voice and tone throughout your essay, using the elements of satire discussed in class.
Use electronic feedback (turnitin.com) from your peers to improve the effectiveness of your final draft.
...humanity’s relationship with nature?
humanity's relationship with nature is a very popular topic for satirists.
Biodiversity
Biological diversity suggests sustaining the diversity of species in each ecosystem as we plan human activities that affect the use of the land and natural resources.
Carbon
Footprint
The more greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person will cause a greater Carbon Footprint..
Cloning
The ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning.
Genetically
Modified
Organisms
(GMOs)
Organisms that have been genetically modified. Genetically modified foods (plants that resist certain diseases) are an example of GMOs.
Global
Warming
Global warming refers to an unequivocal and continuing rise in the average temperature of Earth's climate system.
Mass
Species
Extinction
Population
Growth
Stem
Cell
Research
Sustainability
The extinction of a large number of species within a short period of time due to factors such as a catastrophic global event or widespread environmental change that occurs too rapidly for most species to adapt.
Population growth is the change in a population over time. During the year 2011, according to estimates, 135 million people were born and 57 million died, for an increase in population of 78 million.
"When does life begin?" At this time, to get stem cells that are reliable, scientists either have to use an embryo that has already been conceived or else clone an embryo using a cell from a patient's body and a donated egg.
sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which has ecological, economic, political and cultural dimensions.
Fracking
Hydraulic fracking produces approximately 300,000 barrels of natural gas a day, but at the price of numerous environmental, safety, and health hazards.
Your task...
Pick a topic that genuinely interests you.
You will compose a satirical piece around that topic.
Remember, satirical writing has a strong opinion that is "masked" by humor.
Pick any side you are comfortable with. Your opinion will not affect your grade.
Your grade will depend on your use of the satirical tools we learned in class in your paper.
Have fun with this writing assignment!
Jonathan Swift
1667-1745
Considered the greatest satirist in the English language"
Has a genuine outrage at man's inhumanity toward man.
Swift often raged at the arrogance, phoniness, and shallowness he saw infecting contemporary intellectual and moral life.
Was a clergyman and political writer; however, he became disenchanted with compromises and manipulations of politics.
Irish Patriot
Angered by the way England tyrannized Ireland.
English considered the Irish inferior.
How might this influence Irish-born Swift's satire?
Respected by Irish Catholics AND Protestants.
"The pen is mightier than the sword."
Swift wielded his pen like a rapier, using it to slash away at injustice.
A Modest Proposal
Swift identifies a problem in Ireland:
Ireland's poor are leading wretched lives
He offers a proposal for relieving this burden, decreasing the population, finding a new source of food, and curbing begging.
Read _A Modest Proposal_ with a careful eye examining how Swift ridicules his society's treatment of its less fortunate members.
Voltaire
1694-1778
Used satire to bring attention to the oppression, prejudice, corruption, and religious intolerance in France.
Known for as an advocate for human rights.
Exiled from France in 1726.
Fled to England
Viewed England as an "enlightened society" with a great tolerance for individuality
He was an open advocate for England.
People viewed Voltaire as critical of the French government.
Candide
Candide, the story's protagonist, is a young naive person who is a faithful "optimist."
A student of Pangloss.
Pangloss believed that this world is "the best possible of worlds."
Pangloss is a hyperbole of the optimistic philosophers during the Enlightenment.
Pangloss's philosophy is tested after Candide is exiled after kissing a woman of noble class.
What to expect in Candide
What exactly is "optimism?"
Is it possible to ever be "too optimistic?"
What happens to a young man who is raised with royalty and mentored by a "philosophical genius" when he finds him forced into a military.?
Keep an eye out for verbal and situational irony throughout this excerpt.
Full transcript