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Margaret Gaines

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Culture

Diffusion and Technology Culture includes ideas, values, customs, and artifacts of groups of people Society
Large number of people
living in same territory
independent of outsiders
common culture Culture
socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior Culture: totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge,material objects, and behavior Elements of Culture =language, norms, sanctions, and values
Foundation of every culture
Abstract system of word meanings and symbols
Includes nonverbal communication Language Norms Established standards of behavior maintained by society Types of Norms
Formal norms
Informal Norms
Folkways Do people follow norms all the time?
Norm conflict is a form of norm violation. Example?
Adherence is contingent on political, economic, and social conditions of a society. Example? Norms Sanctions Penalties and rewards for conduct
Conformity leads to reward
Sanctions are a reflection of a culture's values and priorities Values Collective conceptions about what is considered good, desirable, and proper
Or about what is bad, undesirable and improper
Values serve to evaluate the actions of other.
Influence of money, power, and status gaining popularity in America Development of Culture Around the World Cultural Universal
Technology Cultural Universals Common Practices and Beliefs

Expressions of cultural universals vary from society to society Universals (Murdock)

Athletic Sports
Funeral ceremonies
Sexual Restrictions Innovation New Ideas and Object
Innovation can be discovery or invention Diffusion and Technology Cultural Variation Subcultures Culture Shock Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism
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