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Disaster Management Cycle & Legislation
Transcript of Disaster Management Cycle & Legislation
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
DISASTER MANAGEMENT in T&T is currently 'REACTIVE'
Trinidad and Tobago compared to other Caribbean nations, experiences relatively few extreme weather events particularly severe storms and hurricanes though flooding is a perennial problem within the country, with heavy rains causing overflow of the nation’s major river basins (Trinidad and Tobago. EMA 2001).
T &T's EXISTING LEGISLATION
Post disaster recovery + pre-disaster risk reduction
Progression of Vulnerability in T&T
'Specific' to Hazards
'Non-Specific' to Hazards
The Constitution (1976)
The Disaster Measures Act (1978)
Telecommunication Act (2001)
Environmental Management Act (2001)
Regional Health Authority Act (1994)
Defense Force Act (1962)
Fire Services Act (1965)
Water and Sewage Act (1965)
The Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission (1965)
Trinidad and Tobago Mutual Aid Scheme, Act No. 8 of 2000
Prevention and Mitigation
According to a Global Vulnerability Index in 2005, Trinidad and Tobago is classified as being extremely vulnerable to risk as it relates to the environment.
• Ensuring early warning systems are developed and utilized
• Ensuring land use planning and development consider disaster risk reduction
• Integrating all existing legislation and filling gaps
• Mandating the relevant authorities to ensure public awareness and resilience
• Ensuring the status of the existing building code is lifted to a compulsory standard
• Ensuring that there is an effective knowledge management and information sharing platform
• Building capacity of all disaster management stakeholders
• Empowering the ODPM to fulfill its mandate for national comprehensive disaster management
Many studies support the idea that ex ante disaster risk management (DRM) measures are economically effective.
Planning legislation should encourage the sustainable management of the land by designating activities to areas that would reduce risk and vulnerabilities (WCDR 2005, 10).
For example, areas especially prone to major disasters such as near flood plains (Caroni Flood Plains, Caroni, Trinidad) should prohibit the construction of structures to deter people occupying those areas in the interest of public safety
Improved Building Design and management
Improved Structural Requirement
Health and amenities
Improved Services and Equipment
Legal Influences on
Implementing & Adopting
DRM in T&T
Emergency rescue service
Mechanisms to restore order. (Defense force)
Repair and Restore damages to property and environment
Relief Aid Services
• In all types of political regimes (democratic & autocratic), the occurrence of a disaster appears to intensify political competition, sometimes acting as a catalyst for mass political protest, or by causing political incumbents to be punished at the polls (GAR 2011, 29)
Coordination of Agencies
The challenge is encompassing pressures such as resource shortage; abrupt and unforeseen events; and the disturbance of structure support for communication (Chen et al. 2001, 2)
Disaster Risk Management (DRM)
Building Codes and Standards
Rent-Seeking & Corruption
Building codes and Standards provide the minimum acceptable requirements, specifications and guidelines for the safe and reliable construction of buildings (ISO 2013).
Holistic Disaster Management Cycle
By Kern Subar, Marlon Charles, Enoch Rajkumar, Chenella Latchman. 2013/2014.
COEM 6016 Natural Hazards Management, Civil Engineering Department, Lecturers: Mr. Hector Martin & Dr. Everson Peters
Factors affecting implementation
Research into specifications
Low perceived risks by government and population
Population has grown to cope individually with disasters
The significance of this concept is its liability to promote the
to disaster management as well as demonstrate the relationship between disasters and development (Haigh 2008, 3).
Disaster Management (DM) can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters (IFCR 2013).
The process of DM is commonly visualized as a two-phase cycle, with post-disaster recovery informing pre-disaster risk reduction, and vice versa (Haigh 2008, 3).
• Legislation provides reinforced support to effectively and authoritatively achieve objectives that are deemed important (ODPM 2013)
Many government programs, services, agencies and organizations individually contribute to disaster mitigation in Trinidad and Tobago. The foundations for an effective national mitigation network are largely in place, but further investment and development is required to close gaps and repair weaknesses that have resulted from restructuring and budget cuts over the last few years.
Trinidad and Tobago is committed to holistic sustainable development and to the importance of stronger inter-linkages among disaster risk reduction, recovery and long-term development planning as was articulated at the Rio +20 Conference held in Brazil in June 2012.
Within the that same year (2005), the Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management (ODPM) was established to replace the former National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) as a Division of the Ministry of National Security with the responsibility for disaster response and risk management at the national level (Trinidad and Tobago. ODPM 2013, 1)
DRR Policies and Legislation
Development of DRR Legislation would seek to improve the current management of natural disasters. However, why and how governments and other organizations need to be involved in DRR is a complex debate, as there are many ways in which risk can be managed.
• Many factors explain the differences in how countries adopt DRR policies including financial constraints, variations in the level of the risk, and the significant technical and organizational challenges. For instance,
Indonesia's lack of familiarity with the new legislation may explain implementation gaps
South Africa has a strong legal framework for DRR but implementation has fallen short of the intention of the law because there has been little political interest
Mozambique has no DRR legislation but has developed an effective DRR system based on administrative forms of accountability and enforcement
• Legislation alone is not the driver of disaster reduction. However, when political incentives are generally supportive, legislation plays a valuable reinforcing role (GAR 2011, 27).
'Reactive' DM Approach
• Many fields utilize policy and legislation and the field of disaster risk management is no different (ODPM 2013)
• However, legislation alone is not sufficient as political incentives and interest are defining factors that drive disaster risk reduction.
• It is anticipated that stakeholder compliance will ensure that the national vulnerabilities, concerns and issues are addressed to stem the progression of vulnerability to ensure sustainable objectives.
Electoral Issue and DRR
Overall disaster risk reduction has not been a major national electoral issue in T&T, as well as in South Africa, Indonesia, and Bangladesh (all being democratic nations).
Strong democratic institutions
The lack of planning can be detrimental to national and local DRM sustainable objectives
It is necessary to develop specific building codes and standards that are enacted with legislation in order to improve the design of buildings so that they are specifically resilient to tropical environmental weather conditions, which include natural hazards.
Barbados- A Step Ahead
Barbados has taken the initiative in the Caribbean to develop and enact the Barbados Building Act, 1994.
This Act was specifically created to address the climate and geological conditions, especially hurricanes, of this country (BNSI 2013).
Ensures efficiency in the system
Effective resource management
Facilitate larger coverage of assistance through stakeholder interaction
Knowledge sharing and continuous improvement of the system
Adopting a Framework
Adopting emerging regional frameworks such as the Risk Emergency and Disaster Task Force Inter-Agency Workgroup for Latin America and the Caribbean (REDLAC) offer greater scope for regional integration and improved disaster management (Sucre 2013)
Accurate geographical and statistical information on climate patterns in order to develop planning regulations for sustainable land-use
DRR poses particular organizational challenges because it is an activity that involves the private & public sectors as well as the civil society that must be coordinated to achieve a common goal
A regression analysis of DRM spending in the USA suggests that $1 of risk reduction spending can result in as much as a $15 decrease in disaster damage (Healy and Malhotra 2008).
Despite clear economic benefits and a growing awareness of the need for ex ante measures to reduce risk, most governments continue to focus policies and resources to deal with disaster on emergency response and recovery (World Bank 2010).
Administrative functions cannot be simply inserted as separate activities but should be integrated across government and by other key participants (GAR 2011, 27)
DRM- a conceptual framework and set of measures developed to minimize vulnerability and the risks associated with natural hazards (Wilkinson 2012, 1)
Varied international experience with different organizational models for DRR suggests that in many cases there is scope to improve the functioning of DRR systems through organizational reforms.
Blueprint Model for Trinidad & Tobago to adopt
There is no blueprint model, and reforms will need to be adapted to each local context and administrative traditions.
Relatively low and extensive nature of disaster risk
Resulted in DRR not featuring in political competition (GAR 2011, 29).
Organizational arrangement alone is insufficient since DRR is propelled by political incentives (GAR 2011, 27)
In Bangladesh, a lead ministry created in 2003 has resulted in better DRR management.
Ministry is not represented on key central government planning boards, and therefore, it does not have the political influence to push DRR mainstreaming across government departments (GAR 2011, 28)
What do we need?
• Mitigation is generally a low priority for governments and individuals because the benefits of mitigation activities are not immediately tangible (Drabek 1991)
Why the response focus?
Governments are unsure about which measures to adopt to produce social, political and economic outcomes that reduce the overall level of risk, protect the most vulnerable, gain political credibility and that are economically efficient (Wilkinson 2012, 5).
What are the influences??
Democratic competition does not appear to explain the relatively strong DRR system
Concerns of the political leaders, rather than by citizen pressure are the reasons for the drive (GAR 2011, 29).
High levels of disaster risks should have raised the profile of DRR as an electoral issue
An authoritarian past means that democratic traditions are weakly embedded and there are only weak demands on politicians for DRR (GAR 2011, 29).
Barbados has taken the initiative in the Caribbean to develop and enact the Barbados Building Act, 1994. This Act was specifically created to address the climate and geological conditions, especially hurricanes, of this country (BNSI 2013)
Strong legislation covering all aspects of DRR, but there continues to be a strong bias in favour of disaster relief
Politicians do not believe they will gain public support by prioritizing DRR (GAR 2011, 17)
Costs and sacrifices required to reduce vulnerability are difficult to justify in the absence of an imminent threat (Drabek 1991)
People have a natural psychological inclination to underestimate risk (Drabek 1991)
The presence of international aid creates a moral hazard and reduces the incentive for countries to invest in prevention (CDB 2007, 10)
The result, aid dependency
The effectiveness of DRR policies can be undermined by opportunities for rent seeking and corruption that arise during implementation
For example, when regulatory measures are imposed to control land use and building construction, opportunities will emerge to manipulate the process for private gain.
In Columbia, land use plans aim to prevent building in risky locations, however, this has significant effects on land prices (GAR 2011, 18)
Evidence from Turkish earthquake disasters indicates that collusion between corrupt contractors and corrupt building inspectors resulted in lax enforcement, with detrimental consequences.
Collusion or Illusion?
The typical problem in developing countries such as Trinidad and Tobago is not dishonest inspectors, but the fact that such inspections are seldom, if any at all; a consequence of weak incentives for governments to provide public goods (GAR 2011, 18)
Progression of Vulnerability
The aforementioned influences once addressed appropriately and in accordance with international best practices should assist in reducing the progression of vulnerability in Trinidad and Tobago and hence reduce the risks involved