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Design and Typography
Transcript of Design and Typography
and Typography What's in this topic? Design concepts
purpose and audience
Type - styles and principles! 01 Designing a Publication The process of determining the format and the layout of a publication, and then creating the publication Refers to how and what a publication is made of such as the size of the finished product, the materials and the type of binding Refers to the arrangement of elements on each page Elements can be text, titles, pictures, symbols, lines, etc Process of Designing a publication Determining the purpose, audience, and format of the publication
Draw thumbnail sketches of the layout
Review the sketches in terms of the four design concepts
Revise the thumbnail sketches as needed
Create the publication
Print a copy and review it carefully
Make any changes necessary
Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the desired effect is achieved appropriateness, balance, focus and flow, consistency Must always first define the purpose and the audience
Clearly defining the purpose helps to make decisions about content, layout, and format
The audience influences the format and layout of the publication, and can be analyzed by determing specific characteristics. the intent of the publication, such as providing information the people that will read/look at the publication 02 Purpose and Audience Examples of Purpose Purposes of brochures for a special exhibit at a museum
to inform visitors about art in the exhibit and the artist
to provide visitors with a souvenir to take home
to create interest in the exhibit by making the brochure available in places away from the museum to send to people to the museum's Web site
Purposes for a newsletter about teaching art in high schools
to inform teacheres about new ideas, techniques, and materials
to serve as a bulletin board by providing a place to post job openings, job seekers, items wanted, items for sale, announcements for shows, etc
to showcase art created by teachers and students Examples of Audience Audience characteristics for a brochure about a special exhibit at a museum
wide range of ages and backgrounds, but with the common interest of the museum (museum visitors and members)
Live within a 50 mile radius How old is the audience?
Where do they live?
What are their common interests?
What are their educational backgrounds? 03 Formats Once purpose and audience have been determined, the format can be determined. Format of a publication is usually dependent on the binding.
Another factor to think about is the method of distribution. These include by mail, hand delivered or displayed. Different considerations, such as paper quality, for the different methods of distribution. the method that keeps the pages together how the reader gains possession of the publication FLYERS: Brochures printed on one sheet of paper can be folded in different ways or left unfolded.
SADDLE STITCH: a multiple-page publication that is sewn or stapled down the middle then folded
SIDE STAPLED: a multiple-page publication that is stapled down the side
PERFECT BOUND: a multiple-page publication that is glued with a flat binding
WIRE, PLASTIC COMB, THREE-RING BINDING: multiple-page publication bindings that require punching holdes into the pages Different Styles of Binding! Practice You have been asked to design a brochure for a vacuum clear company. The company wants to mail out information about three models of vacuum cleaners to the home owners in California (the area where they have a sales team that can go to the customer). As a result of this mailing, the company want customers to set up appointments for demonstrations.
What is the purpose of the brochure?
Who is the audience for the brochure?
Would a folded brochure be easier to mail than a three-ring binder? Why or why not?
Would a flyer be appropriate for this publication? Why or Why not? You have been asked to design a newsletter for a local bicycling club. The club plans on publishing one issue of about eight pages every two months. The newsletter will be sent to all the members, an also be put on display for customers at eight local bike shops (in an efort to increase membership). The club wants to include stories by members, reviews of bicycle trails, a classified section, and pictures of events. Anyone can join the club, but the focus is on local byicycling outings, with afamilies and friends.
What is the purpose of the newsletter?
Who is the audience?
Which binding would be better for this newsletter: saddle-stitch or plastic comb? Why? o4 Creating and Using Thumbnails Thumbnail sketches are small pictures of publication pages that are drawn by hand on paper. After determining the purpose, audience and format, thumbnail sketches are drawn as the initial layout.
Thumbnail sketches usually go through several revisions before a workable layout is found! Start with a small rectangle proportionately the size of a page of the publication.
Shaded rectangles represent graphics and squiggles represent text.
(Remember zooming out from a layout?) Why is it important to use thumbnail sketches? Make thumbnails for these publications. Make sure your design goes through three revisions! 05 Concepts of Design 4 basic design concepts to consider that help youmake decisions about layout during the processing of designing a publication. Referred to as design concepts because they are directly related to the visual aspects of a publication Remember! A design goes thruogh many changes before it is finished, and good designs are usually the result of considerable revision! No actual RULES for publication design, only guidelines that come from the design concepts. It all depends on the situation - experience dictates the better choice! 06 Design Concept: Appropriateness Appropriateness of a design refers to how well the elements in the publication match the purpose and audience.
Includes fonts (lettering), graphics, and layout. Do the fonts fit the purpose of the publication? Are they too big, small, plain, fancy?
Are they readable?
Is the layout appropriate for the subject?
Is it appropriate for the audeicne? 07 Design Concept: Balance Balance of a design is the relative weight, heavy or light, of each element and how they work together. The thicker, darker or larger an element is, the heavier it appears on a page. On the other hand, the thinner and smaller an element is, the lighter is appears.
The placement of elements also influences the balance. Elements can be heavy and light in different ways. A large photograph is usually heavy, but the weight depends on the contents of the pictures, not the size. Balance is tricky; if elements balance too well, publication may become boring. Small variations in layout can create a less static appearnce and hold the reader's interest. However, the reader will become confused and the publication will become busy if elements are far too off balance. Balance small elements with large elements - this will ensure readability how easily the reader can understand the publication 08 Design Concepts: Focus and Flow where the reader's eye goes when first looking at the page. the eye's travels around the page in a path created by the elements Focus Flow The flow is directed by the weight and placement of each element and by the white space around and between the elements. The shape of white space influences the directions that the reader's eye travels around the page. Even though that white space is just blank, it's just as important to focus and flow as text and graphics! White space any blank area on a page Focus is important on each page of a publication
Reader only glances at page; in a split second, the reader decides whether to continue reading or not.
Graphics or a strong headline need to catch attention without overwhelming the other design elements.
It is important that the reader is not "confused" by having competing visual focus 09 Design Concepts: Consistency A publication is held together by elements that are repeated throughout its layout.
I.e. if a newspaper uses a large letter at the beginning of each article, the reader will use that large letter as a visual cue to the next story/article.
The importance of consistency increases with the length of a publication. Consistence visual cues help the reader keep a point of reference 10 Introducing Typography Choosing an appropriate font, size and style are important.
Typography: arrangement, shape, size, style and weight of text. Typeface set of letters drawn in a specific style. Font Technically refers to the specific size and weight of a single typeface. However, font and typeface are interchangeable in desktop publishing. Two groups of fonts: Serif San Serifs The small extensions found on the end of letters! Our eye scans whole words, not every letter; serif fonts appear closer together and therefore we can scan them more easily.
Serifs are more commonly used for body text and sans serifs are used for headlines and titles (contrasting fonts in this way can help separate heading from text. Decorative fonts: an exception in that they do not always fall into serif or sans serif categories. Used for publications such as advertisements and invitations. Includes fonts of symbols and dingbats. Cap height
counters the height of the capital letters the imaginary line where the bottom of the letters sit and the line of the descenders hang below parts of lowercase letters that rise above the x-height, and may rise taller than the cap of some fonts parts of lowercase letters that hang below the baseline the height of lowercase letters, not including ascenders and descenders the empty spaces completely surrounded by a letter, such as the centre of a 'p' Size Size of a font is measured in points
One point is 1/72 of an inch
Point size of each font is determined by the font's designer
Actual size of the characters in different fonts varies greatly Styles indicate variation of the characters. Most common: bold, italic, underline.
Plain type is called normal, although book and roman are also common Style 11 Leading The distance from one line to another
(pronouned "ledding") Leading Leading is measured in points. Fonts and leading are generally mentioned together.
Example: Palatino ten on twelve: 10 point Palatino type with 12 points of leading. Overall weight of text, the darkness of the page and the ability to relate text to other text varies by the amount of leading used.
Too small of leading: text is visually crowded, reader finds it harder to read.
Too far of leading: the eye has to travel too far between lines to scan the text. The longer the line length of the text, the more leading that is needed to distinguish the lines from each other. Text with a large x-height has less white space between the lines and need more leading. Start with leading that is 20% larger than the font size (i.e. 10 point font, 12 point leading). Guideline! How does leading affect a publication?