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The Senses

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by

Erika Osborne

on 9 June 2014

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Transcript of The Senses

The ear is responsible for capturing air waves and transmitting it into sound.
The Ear
The eye captures light, converts it to electrical signals, and then sends the signals to the brain, where it will be interrupted as vision.
The Eye
Rhodopsin is located in the specialized light receptor cells in the eye called rods. Rods allow people to see clearly in low lights. Rhodopsin is also known as visual purple because of its actual color. When rhodopsin is exposed to bright light, it turns sort of white. Then, after some time back in the dimmer light, rhodopsin returns to it's original color.
Rhodopsin
Nails are composed of a protein called keratin and are responsible for protecting the ends of the fingers and toes.
Nails
By- Erika Osborne and Ryan Farley
The Senses
The Skin
Sensory Receptors
Disorders of the Senses
Sensory receptors are neurons that detect stimuli. Sensory receptors are responsible for sending information to the brain from the stimuli detected. The brain then makes decisions on how to react based on the information received. This process allows people to be aware of their surroundings and make appropriate reactions to the environment. Sensory receptors in a human body include Mechanoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors, photoreceptors, and pain receptors.
Mechanoreceptors
Mechanorexeptors are sensory receptors that respond to movement, pressure, and tension.
They are found all over the body next to hair follicles.
One example of mechanoreceptors can be found in the organ of Corti in the middle of the ear.
Thermoreceptors
Thermoreceptors are sensory receptors that respond to changes in temperature.
Heat receptors located close to the skin's surface and cold receptors located deep in the dermis of the skin, are two types of thermoreceptors that help monitor the temperature of the body.
Controlling the temperature of the skin helps the body maintain homeostasis which is the tendency of the body to sustain a stable condition.
Chemoreceptors
Chemoreceptors are sensory receptors that respond to different chemicals.
They are found all throughout the body including the nose, brain, and in the mouth.
The chemoreceptors in the nose are called olfactory receptors, and they are located in the mucus lining in the nasal passages.
Chemoreceptors located in the mouth are called taste buds. Taste buds are embedded between the bumps on the tongue called the papillae. Other taste buds are located in the throat and the roof of the mouth.
Photoreceptors
Photoreceptors are sensory receptors that respond to vibrations in light.
Two types of photoreceptors called rods and cones are located in the eye.
Photoreceptors translate light energy that passes through the eye into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain.
Pain Receptors
Pain receptors are sensory receptors that respond to tissue damage.
These receptors are found in the base of the epidermis of the skin and throughout the interior of the body.
Pain receptors respond to mechanical, electrical, thermal, and chemical energy.
Dysgeusia- A disorder when there is a metallic taste in the mouth that won't go away.
Causes- Dysgeusia can be caused by gingivitis, certain medicines, smoking, dry mouth, vitamin or mineral deficiency,and damage to taste nerves. Sometimes dysgeusia can be a symptom of pregnancy.
Treatment- Dysgeusia is mostly treated by treating the cause. If the cause can not be treated, dysgeusia is hard to treat. An example of this would be irreversible nerve damage. If the cause can not be found it is called idiopathic dysgeusia.
Disorders of the Senses
Anosmia- A disorder in which the ability to smell is completely lost. This may be temporary or permanent.
Causes- Sinus and other respiratory infections, exposure to certain chemicals such as insecticides, some medicines including common antibiotics and antihistamines. A common cause of anosmia is aging.
Treatment- Anosmia can be treated by treating the cause. If the cause can not be treated, consoling may be issued to learn to cope with the new changes. Since taste and smell are closely related, losing the ability in one would most likely cause an alteration in the other.
Prevalence- More than 200,000 people each year see a doctor for taste disorders.
Prevalence- About 1 to 2 percent of people in North America have a smell disorder.
Nails form from nail roots under skin folds at the base and sides of the nail.
The nail rests on a bed of tissue filled with blood vessels called the nail bed. This gives the nail its pinkish color.
The skin is the largest organ of the body.
The tympanic membrane is also known as the eardrum.
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Skin weighs about 6 pounds by itself.
The epidermis is the outer layer of skin that contains keratin which is a protein that gives skin its texture and waterproof quality.
The dermis is the inner layer of skin that contains sensory receptors, blood vessels, muscle fibers, hair follicles, and glands. The dermis also contains two proteins called collagen and elistin that are responsible for the support and elasticity of the skin.
The Hair
Hair helps insulate the body.
Hair starts to grow in the lower layers of the dermis.
Hair is composed of dead, keratin-filled cells that overlap each other.
The pigment melanin is responsible for giving hair its color.
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