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Chap 3: The American Colonies Take Shape

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Martha Mitchell

on 13 September 2016

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Transcript of Chap 3: The American Colonies Take Shape

The English had more people and stronger colonial aims.

They could dominate the Native Americans if they didn't have to worry about the French/Native American alliance.
The Proclamation of
1763
said colonists couldn't go past
the Appalachian Mountains
Why did they get
on the ship?

The Magna Carta

English noblemen forced King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215.
limited the power of the King to levy taxes without consent
guaranteed the right of due process
eventually led to the establishment of Parilament

American colonists said they were entitled to the same rights as any other English subject
A Measure of Self-Rule in America
Variety of Governments
Puritan Theocracies
Royal Governors
Lord Proprietors
Colonial Assemblies
English Parliamentary System
Man has certain inalienable "natural" rights that came from God
Locke
Judeo-Christian Roots
English Parliamentary Structure
Greco-Roman history
The Enlightenment
The Age of Reason
"He that lives upon hope
will die fasting"
Benjamin Franklin
http://declaringamerica.com/franklin-list-of-virtues-autobiography-chapter-8-1730/
Section 1: Immigration and Slavery
Section 2: The American Colonies
and England

I'm King James,
King of England
I'd also like to make NY and NY a new colony called
The Dominion of New England. I'll be in charge., so you people in those "assemblies" are out. I"m bringing in my own guy.
And you can pay your taxes to him whether you like it or not!
We think we should revolt
gloriously!
One result of the Glorious Revolution was
the English Bill of Rights
that stated that
"levying money for or to the use of the Crown by
pretense of perogative without grant of Parliament.... is
illegal"
"raising or keeping a standing army
within the kingdom in times of peace.....is against law."
"excessive bail ought not to be required,
nor excessive fines, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted."
and the right of
habeaus corpus
no person can be held in prison without
being charged with a crime.
The Ten Commandments and he New Testament inspired American ideas about government and morality

The Magna Carta
The English Bill of Rights
Colonies replace royal governors;
establish assemblies
A period of
began
Salutory neglect
We'll let you take care
of your own business.
http://www.ushistory.org/us/7c.asp
Roots of
American
Montesquieu
Thomas Hobbes
Social Contract
That contract should be clearly defined
The People cede some rights
to the government in return
for freedom and security
A Rolling Stone
Gathers No Moss
The Ideal Mon of
The Enlightenment
the idea that a country/empire could grow wealth by developing industries for exporting manufactured goods.
England's Economic Relationship with the Colonies
$
Mercantilism
a series of trade laws essentially limiting
colonial trade with anyone except Britain.
The Navigation Acts
1651-1733
Goods imported to England from
Asia, Africa, and the Americas could be
transported only in English ships.
The American colonies could export
sugar, tobacco and indigo only to
England.
All foreign goods shipped to the colonies had to
pass through English ports where a duty
was collected.
Duties were increased on sugar traded
between the French Indies and the
American colonies
= a shopper's paradise
but also =
greed, debt,
resentment
The Great Awakening

individuals are responsible for their own salvation
promoted an individual and emotional style of worship
Jonathan Edwards
George Whitefield
Each inspired the American people with a sense of individual destiny and self-determination
Wars of Empire
How was land important in British mercantile policies?
Land was the economic driver for mercantilism. This meant they could produce more raw materials and accomodate more consumers and tax payers.
The Native Americans needed a balance of power between the colonial powers.
The French had been their traditional allies and treated them with restraint.

The French also kept the English from becoming too dominant.
Both the French and the English needed the Native Americans to be their guides and to protect them from rival tribes.

So they both gave the Native Americans gifts to try and woo them to their side. This was also good for the Native Americans.
As British population grew, they were more able to dominate both the French and the Native Americans
To resist the growing British strength, the French and Native Americans build Fort Duquesne to keep the British from moving into Ohio River Valley
The British get more aggressive and the French and Indians respond.
This was the first battle of the French and Indian War.

The English didn't fare much better for two years.
George Washington comes to save the day and kick the French/Indians out of Fort Duquesne
The French were left starving by a British naval blockade
Finally, the tide turns for the British
The Native Americans abandon the French
and head to the English who can feed them
The new British/Native American alliance leads to the defeat of the French.
The French were forced to sign
the Treaty of Paris. This map shows how much land they lost.
However, the British effort to squash the rebellion was costly, and they issued the
The Native Americans left behind after the Treaty of Paris suffered at the hands of the conquering British
Pontiac's Rebellion was an attempt to drive the British out of the Ohio River Valley so that the French could come back. It failed
The Proclamation of 1763
to restrict further British settlement on
Native American land.
However, it was not likely that a proclamation would
stem English settlement and mercantile policies, so that the Proclamation of 1763 was primarily a PR stunt that the colonists ignored.
Two other effects of the
French /Indian War
The Albany Convention of 1754 was an attempt to get all British colonies to reach a consensus on an Indian policy. While that was not sucecessful, and the colonies failed to endore Franklin's proposal for a colonial alliance, the Albany Plan of Union, it represented the beginning of the colonies as a political block.
The first political cartoon in the colonies.
Drawn by Benjamin Franklin (who else!?)
and published in the Philadelphia Gazette
before the Albany Convention of 1754
The English felt like the colonists owed them for saving them from the French and Indians!
Now the scales began to tip in the relationship between
the colonies and the crown.
The English colonists were free of the French and the Indians
The war was expensive and the colonists
were in their debt.
The American Colonies Take Shape
Chapter 3
Remember the headright system?
The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast, was the sea, and a slave ship, which was then riding at anchor, and waiting for its cargo. These filled me with astonishment, which was soon converted into terror, when I was carried on board. I was immediately handled, and tossed up to see if I were sound, by some of the crew; and I was now persuaded that I had gotten into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me.
Slavery in the New World
Tobacco farmland for rich
British people
What about people who couldn't afford to pay for passage?
They paid for their passage with a period of indentured
servitude, but, after 4- 7 years, they were free!
The Middle Passage


http://www.phschool.com/atschool/dsp_swf.cfm?pathname=/atschool/us_history/geography_interactive/&filename=nep-0302.swf&w=760&h=460
$
One day, when we had a smooth sea and moderate wind, two of my wearied countrymen who were chained together (I was near them at the time), preferring death to such a fife of misery, somehow made through the nettings and jumped into the sea; immediately, another quite dejected fellow, who, on account of his illness, was suffered to be out of irons, also followed their example; and I believe many more would very soon have done the same, if they had not been prevented by the ship's crew, who were instantly alarmed.

Those of us that were the most active, were in a moment put down under the deck; and there was such a noise and confusion
amongst the people of the ship
as I never heard before, to stop her,
and get the boat out to go after the slaves.
However, two of the wretches were drowned,
but they got the other, and afterwards
flogged him unmercifully,
for thus attempting to prefer death to slavery.
...we were all put under deck.... The stench of the hold while we were on the coast was so intolerably loathsome, that it was dangerous to remain there for any time, and some of us had been permitted to stay on the deck for the fresh air; but now that the whole ship's cargo were confined together, it became absolutely pestilential. The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died -- thus falling victims to the ,







as I may call it, of their purchasers. This wretched situation was again aggravated by the gaffing of the chains, now became insupportable, and the filth of the necessary tubs, into which the clihdren often fell, and were almost suffocated. The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable..
improvident avarice
The
Africans
Originally, African workers were often treated as indentured servants.
They could own land, vote, and even buy
enslaved Africans on their own.
but in 1705, the Virginia General
Assembly declared
"All servants imported...who were not Christians in their
native country...shall be accounted and be slaves. "
Other laws stated that the children of enslaved African Americans were also slaves.
Stono Rebellion
Small Free Black
communities
runaways welcomed by Spanish

(some discrimination)
Some rebelled by
working slowly
feigning illness
breaking tools
Small Free Black
communities
Oh, ye nominal Christians!
might not an African ask you, learned you this from your God, who says unto you, Do unto all men as you would men should do unto you? Is it not enough that we are torn from our country and friends to toil for your luxury and lust of gain? Must every tender feeling be likewise sacrificed to your avarice?




Are the dearest friends and relations, now
rendered more dear by their separation from their kindred, still to be parted from each other, and thus prevented from cheering the gloom of slavery with the small comfort of being together and mingling their sufferings and sorrows? Why are parents to lose their children, brothers their sisters, or husbands their wives? Surely this is a new
refinement in cruelty, which, while it has no advantage to atone forit, thus aggravates distress, and adds fresh horrors even to the
wretchedness of slavery.
Scotch - Irish escaping poverty
Germans fleeing religious prosecution
The Triangular Trade Route and
The Middle Passage
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/colonial/jb_colonial_stono_1.html
Primary Source: The Stono
Rebellion
Full transcript