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Human Endocrine System And History

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An'tuan Williams

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of Human Endocrine System And History

An enlarged heart
Heart failure
Myxedema coma, a loss of consciousness caused by profoundly low thyroid hormone levels
Mental confusion
Infertility or miscarriage
Complications and Health Risks
Unexplained weight gain
Unusual weakness and fatigue
Lack of energy
Depression
Inability to tolerate coldness
Pain in the joints and muscles
Hair loss
Weakened fingernails
Thickened skin
Swelling of the feet, hands, and face
A hoarse voice, problems swallowing, or a tight feeling in the throat
Constipation
Irregular periods
Goiter (swelling of the thyroid gland that causes a lump in the neck)
Symptoms
Hypothyroidism
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis
Autoimmune thyroiditis
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Thyroid Disease
(Thyroiditis)
Thyroid Gland
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a condition caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland. It is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body inappropriately attacks the thyroid gland--as if it was foreign tissue. The underlying cause of the autoimmune process still is unknown. Hashimoto's thyroiditis tends to occur in families, and is associated with a clustering of other autoimmune conditions such as Type 1diabetes, and celiac disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is 5-10 times more common in women than in men and most often starts in adulthood. Blood drawn from patients with Hashimoto's throiditis reveals an increased number of antibodies to the enzyme, thyroid peroxidase an enzyme (protein) found within the thyroid gland. As result of the antibodies' interaction with the enzyme, inflammation develops in the thyroid gland, the thyroid gland is destroyed, and the patient ultimately is rendered hypothyroid (too little thyroid hormone).
What causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
In diagnosing Hashimoto's thyroiditis, a physician should assess symptoms and complaints commonly seen in hypothyroidism, examine the neck, and take a detailed history of family members. Blood tests are extremely useful in diagnosing Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The blood tests look at the thyroid function in general. (With hypothyroidism, a high thyroid stimulating hormone and low thyroid hormone would be expected.)
How is Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosed?
When hypothyroidism is present, the blood levels of thyroid hormones can be measured directly and are usually decreased. However, in early hypothyroidism, the level of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) may be normal. Therefore, the main tool for the detection of hyperthyroidism is the measurement of the TSH, the thyroid stimulating hormone. As mentioned earlier, TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland. If a decrease of thyroid hormone occurs, the pituitary gland reacts by producing more TSH and the blood TSH level increases in an attempt to encourage thyroid hormone production. This increase in TSH can actually precede the fall in thyroid hormones by months or years (see the section on Subclinical Hypothyroidism below). Thus, the measurement of TSH should be elevated in cases of hypothyroidism. However, there is one exception. If the decrease in thyroid hormone is actually due to a defect of the pituitary or hypothalamus, then the levels of TSH are abnormally low. As noted above, this kind of thyroid disease is known as "secondary" or "tertiary" hypothyroidism. A special test, known as the TRH test, can help distinguish if the disease is caused by a defect in the pituitary or the hypothalamus. This test requires an injection of the TRH hormone and is performed by an endocrinologist (hormone specialist). The blood work mentioned above confirms the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, but does not point to an underlying cause. A combination of the patient's clinical history, antibody screening (as mentioned above), and a thyroid scan can help diagnose the precise underlying thyroid problem more clearly. If a pituitary or hypothalamic cause is suspected, an MRI of the brain and other studies may be warranted. These investigations should be made on a case by case basis.
Treating Thyroid Disease
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM GROUP !
Hypothyroidism
under active gland
causing larthargism
Hyperthyroidism
Over active gland
Causing possible diabetes
Word Play Differences
History
First Case Dicovered
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the most common form of thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease where the body's own antibodies fight the cells of the thyroid. Also known as Hashimoto's disease, it is named after the Japanese physician, Hakaru Hashimoto (1881–1934) of the medical school at Kyushu University, who first described it to medicine in 1912.
1912
Today
Science
Holistic Health
2010
Vs
References
References
Yi Wu, et al. "The Clinical Features Of Papillary Thyroid Cancer In Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Patients From An Area With A High Prevalence Of Hashimoto's Disease." BMC Cancer 12.1 (2012): 610-617. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

Hermann Michael, et al. "Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Affects Symptom Load And Quality Of Life Unrelated To Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Case–Control Study In Women Undergoing Thyroidectomy For Benign Goiter." Thyroid 21.2 (2011): 161-167. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.
Megan R. Haymart, et al. "Factors That Influence Radioactive Iodine Use For Thyroid Cancer." Thyroid 23.2 (2013): 219-224. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.
http://www.everydayhealth.com/thyroid-conditions/hypothyroidism-caused-by-hashimotos-thyroiditis.aspx

Senni, M., Tribouilloy, C. M., Rodeheffer, R. J., et al. (1998).
Circulation 98, 2282–2289.
Biondi, B., Fazio, S., Palmieri, E. A., et al. (1999). J. Clin.
Endocrinol. Metab. 84, 2064–2067.
The Key Is To Avoid Unbalance
Hi I am Alexi Dourlas
Year: Junior
Major: Health Education

Member 2 {Research Paper 60%,
Prezi 15%}

Hi I am An'tuan Williams
Year: Junior
Major:Public Health
Minor:Geography

Member 3 [Group Leader] {Collaboration of Prezi/Power point file 70%, Research Paper 20%,
Member 1 {Survey Research, Research Detail, Research Paper 20%,Powerpoint}
Hi I am Darlene Sakmar
Year: Sophmore
Major: Nursing
Minor: Public Health

And We Are The
Community Implication
Health Care Home
Placed in a dependent health care facility, daily or can be addmited.
Family Stress
Elderly may hender every day life of childern who work.
Individual
Poor diet, lifestyle, phycial health and mental awareness of disease can lead to development of disease and possibly spread to childeren through genes.
Thyroid Assist™
Herbal remedy to relieve symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), including depression, fatigue & weight gain
Thyroid treatment


Types of Thyroid Cancer

There are 4 main types of thyroid cancer, and some are more common than others.

Thyroid cancer type and incidence:

Papillary and/or mixed papillary/follicular thyroid cancer: ~ 80%
Follicular and/or Hurthle cell thyroid cancer: ~ 15%
Medullary thyroid cancer: ~ 3%
Anaplastic thyroid cancer: ~ 2%

Thyroid cancer

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not a reason to avoidpregnancy. However, some women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis do have trouble conceiving. In some patients, supplementation with selenium is used to try and decrease antibody levels. (The theory is that lower antibody levels may lead to better success in conception.) Both before and during pregnancy, the levels of thyroid hormones need to be checked to make certain they are in the optimal range for pregnancy. This is usually within the range for nonpregnant women but at the higher end of the range.
Should I be concerned if I have Hashimoto's thyroiditis and want to become pregnant?
Fig. 2. Systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure in two studies of subclinical hypothyroid patients before and after levothyroxine
therapy.
Table 1
Thyroid Hormone Response Myocyte Proteins
Positive regulation Negative regulation
α-myosin heavy chain β-myosin heavy chain
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Phospholamban
β1-adrenergic receptors Adenylyl cyclase types V and VI
Guanine-nucleotide-regulatory proteins Triiodothyronine nuclear receptor α1
Na+/K+
-ATPase Na+/Ca2+ exchanger
Voltage-gated potassium channels
(Kv1.5, Kv4.2, Kv4.3)
Thyroid Assist™
Herbal remedy to relieve symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), including depression, fatigue & weight gain
Dr. Mathes shares about Breakthrough Brain-Based Neuro-Metabolic Treatment for Sufferers with Hypothyroid, Hyperthyroid, and Hashimoto's Disease.
Our Endocrine Glands
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