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The Central Nervous System

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on 11 April 2016

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Transcript of The Central Nervous System

Temporal Lobe
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Sensory information is sent here.
Represented on sensory homonucleus.
• is gray matter overlying white matter
folds (gyri)
grooves (sulci or fissures)
Cerebral cortex
"Great Comparator"
Compares actual movement with intended movements
Gray matter: Cell bodies
White matter: myelinated axons
Parietal Lobe
Receives sensory input
Frontal Lobe Functions
Motor Functions
Higher Thinking
Word Meaning (Broca's)
Impulse Control
Long term Memory
Socially acceptable behavior
Temporal Lobes
Hearing ability
Long term memory
Some visual perceptions
Categorization of objects.
Sensory information is sent here.
Represented on sensory homonucleus.
Spinal Cord
Central Nervous

Sensory information is sent here.
Represented on sensory homonucleus.
Parietal Lobe
Receives sensory input
Frontal Lobe Functions
Motor Functions
Higher Order Functions
Impulse Control
Corpus callosum
1 inch long mass of gray mater in each half of brain
(connected across the 3rd ventricle by intermediate mass)
Relay station for sensory information on way to cortex
Crude perception of some sensations
Major regulator of homeostasis
Synthesizes regulatory hormones that control the anterior pituitary
Contains cell bodies of axons that end in posterior pituitary where they secrete hormones
Regulates rage, aggression, pain, pleasure & arousal
Feeding, thirst & satiety centers
Controls body temperature
Regulates daily patterns of sleep
4th Ventricle
One inch long
White fiber tracts ascend and descend
Areas to help control breathing
Carries sensory info to the cerebellum
Lateral Ventricle
One inch in length
Extends from pons to diencephalon
Cerebral aqueduct connects 3rd ventricle above to 4th ventricle below
Cerebral Aquaduct
Cardiovascular center
force & rate of heart beat
diameter of blood vessels
Respiratory center
medullary rhythmicity area sets
basic rhythm of breathing
Reflex centers for coughing, sneezing, swallowing etc
Optic Chiasm
Third Ventricle
It is bounded by the thalamus and hypothalamus on both the left and right sides
Pineal Gland
secretes melatonin during darkness
promotes sleepiness & sets biological clock
Choroid Plexus
makes cerebrospinal fluid
axons that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication.
Functions of Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Visual processing center
Occipital Lobe
THe Function of the Cerebellum
The 4 lobes and their functions
Spinal Nerve
Dorsal Ganglion
contains cell bodies of sensory neurons
Dorsal Nerve Root
Ventral Nerve Root
contains axons of motor neurons
contains axons of sensory neurons
Dorsal Horn of Gray
Ventral Horn of Gray
sensory/interneurons synapse
motor/interneurons synapse
contains sensory and motor neurons
spinal nerves are mixed nerves
Sensory Neuron
Motor Neuron
Dura Mater
Arachnoid Mater
Pia Mater
contain ascending/descending nerve tracts
White Matter
31 Pairs of spinal nerves
The spinal cord has three major functions:
1. Pathway for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord.
2. Pathway for sensory information, which travels up the spinal cord.
3. center for coordinating certain reflexes.
Spinal Nerves (31 Pairs)
Flattened cylinder
16-18 Inches long & 3/4 inch diameter
In adult ends at L2 & in newborn ends at L4
Pia Mater
Dura Mater
Arachnoid Layer
Subarachnoid Space
contains CSF
The Meninges
System of membranes which envelopes the central nervous system.
The primary function of the meninges and of the cerebrospinal fluid is to protect the central nervous system.
a clear, colorless, fluid, that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord. In essence, the brain "floats" in it.
It constitutes the content of all ventricles, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord.
It acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull.
It is produced in the choroid plexus.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
where the optic nerves partially cross
The Brain Stem
Sensory neuron
1. Incoming info moves into CNS
2. Crosses to other side
3. Moves up toward brain
(ascending nerve tract)
4. Moves through brain stem
5. Reaches Thalamus which
sends to correct lobe of brain
6. Integration occurs
7. Output moves down interneuron
8. Through brainstem again
(descending nerve tract)
9. Motor output continues
moving through spinal cord
10. Synapses with motor neuron
11. Motor neuron takes impulse
to effector
Spinal Cord Anatomy
4 main parts
brain stem
brain stem
central sulcus
precentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus
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