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3.4 Cycles Of Matter

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Nadia Tewelde

on 12 November 2014

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Transcript of 3.4 Cycles Of Matter

Recycling in the Biosphere
Key Question: How does matter move through the biosphere?
The Water Cycle
Nutrient Limitation
Key Question: How does nutrient availability relate to the primary productivity of an ecosystem?
3.4 Cycles Of Matter
Nutrient Cycles

-Enters atmosphere as:
Key Question: How are the different nutrient cycles essential to life?
transpiration
- evaporation from leaves of plants
water vapor
-
a gas (transported by winds)
movement of matter different from energy
new energy into the biosphere, matter recycled in biosphere
Biogeochemical cycles
- process elements, chemical compounds, other forms of matter pass one part of biosphere to another
powered by energy
Carbon Cycle
-Water vapor condenses into tiny droplets (form clouds)
Nutrients
are chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life.
A
nutrient cycle
is a repeated pathway of a particular nutrient from the environment through one or more organisms and back to the environment.
runoff
- water that flows along the same surface, until it enters the ocean or lake
groundwater-
precipitation absorbed into soil
Water that re-enters the atmosphere - transpiration/evaporation begins the cycle anew
Key Question: How does water cycle through the biosphere?
Precipitation
Rain
Snow
Sleet
Hail
Biological Processes
Any and all activities performed by living organisms

eating
breathing
"burning" food
eliminating waste products
1a. How does the way that matter flows through an ecosystem differ from the way that energy flows?
1b. What are the four types of processes that cycle matter through the biosphere? Give an example of each?
2a. By what two processes is water cycled from land to the atmosphere?
2b. Describe one way in which water from the ocean may make one complete cycle through the atmosphere and back to the ocean. Include the names of each process involved in your cycle.
If ample sunlight and water are available, the primary productivity of an ecosystem may be limited by the availability of nutrients.
Ample-enough or more than enough; plentiful.
In most soil, crop plants growth is limited by one or more nutrients that
the plant must take up.
Fertilizer helps plants grow better in poor soil.
If any nutrient is in short supply the whole system slows down or stops.

Open oceans are nutrient poor compared to many lands.
Saltwater environments are usually nitrogen deprived (limiting nutrient).
Streams, lakes and freshwater environments are phosphorus deprived (limiting nutrient).
Algal Bloom- dramatic increase in amount of algae and other primary producers.
After heavy rains leads to algal bloom.
More nutrients are available, so producers can grow and reproduce more quickly.
If there are not enough consumers to eat the algae, an algal bloom can occur and cover the water’s surface and disrupt the functioning of an ecosystem.

Carbon
- essential component of cells and life-sustaining chemical reactions that's cycled through living and decaying organisms, the atmosphere, bodies of water, and soil and rock.
Carbon dioxide is taken in through
photosynthesis
to build carbohydrates.
Carbon dioxide is released through plant and animal
respiration
,
decomposition
, various
geologic forces
that can turn accumulated carbon into carbon-containing rocks or fossil fuels, and
volcanic activity
or
human activities
.


Nitrogen Cycle
78 percent of air is made up of nitrogen gas.
Nitrogen fixation
-
The process of converting nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants and animals can absorb and use (ammonia and nitrate)
Denitrification
- process by which bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas.
Decomposers release nitrogen from waste and dead organisms as ammonia, nitrates, and nitrites that producers may breathe in again.
Nitrogen returns to the atmosphere by denitrifying bacteria.
Nitrogen is required for genetic materials such as DNA,
RNA, and amino acids.

Phosphorus Cycle
Phosphorus
is essential to living organisms because it forms a part of vital molecules such as DNA and RNA.
Water dissolves phosphates on rocks and carries it to rivers and streams.
Dissolved phosphate
is used by plants and animals and passed through the food chain.
Phosphates mined for fertilizers return phosphorus to the soil.
Geological Processes
volcanic eruptions
formation and breakdown of rock
major movements of matter within and below surface of earth
Chemical and Physical Processes
formation of clouds
precipitation
flow of running water
lightning
Human Activity
Affect cycles of matter on global scale:
mining and burning of fossil fuels
clearing land for building and farming
burning of forests
manufacture and use of fertilizers

3a. Why do living organisms need nutrients?
3b. Based on your knowledge of the carbon cycle, what do you think might happen if humans were to continue to clear and burn vast areas of forests for building?
4a. Explain how a nutrient can be a limiting factor in an ecosystem
4b. Look back at the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles (figures 3-18 and 3-19). How is fertilizer runoff related to algal blooms?
In Your Notebook
Mystery Clue
Nutrient Limitation in Soil
Nutrient Limitation in Aquatic Ecosystems
Full transcript