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ABC book of elements

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carson freeman

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of ABC book of elements

Obstacle 1 Obstacle 2 Obstacle 3 Goal Start Aluminum (Al) Copper is one of the most important metals. Copper is reddish with a bright metallic lustre. It is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity (second only to silver in electrical conductivity). Its alloys, brass and bronze, are very important. Monel and gun metals also contain copper. Apparently the reason that policemen in the USA are nicknamed "cops" or "coppers" is to do with their uniforms which used to have copper buttons.

The most important compounds are the oxide and the sulphate, (blue vitriol). dubnium (Db) THE END ABC BOOK OF ELEMENTS GAME Boron (Br) Copper (Cu) Dubnium is a synthetic element that is not present in the environment at all. It has no uses. name comes from the latin word alumen
Pure aluminium is a silvery-white metal with many desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic (as the metal), nonmagnetic and nonsparking. It is somewhat decorative. It is easily formed, machined, and cast. Pure aluminium is soft and lacks strength, but alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties. Aluminium is an abundant element in the earth's crust, but it is not found free in nature. The Bayer process is used to refine aluminium from bauxite, an aluminium ore. it is found in group 13 on the periodic table • Atomic number: 13
• Atomic weight: 26.9815386 Aluminium was discovered by Hans Christian Oersted at 1825 in Denmark Boron is a Group 13 element that has properties which are borderline between metals and non-metals (semimetallic). It is a semiconductor rather than a metallic conductor. Chemically it is closer to silicon than to aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium.

Crystalline boron is inert chemically and is resistant to attack by boiling HF or HCl. When finely divided it is attacked slowly by hot concentrated nitric acid. Boron was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy, Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, L.J Atomic number: 5
Atomic weight: 10.811 (7) Atomic number: 29
• Atomic weight: 63.546 (3) [see note r Atomic number: 105
• Atomic weight: [ 268 ] unknown color , but probably metallic and silvery white or grey in appearance Dubnium was discovered by Workers at the Nuclear Institute at Dubna, and the University of California, Berkeley, USA. at 1967 in USSR, United States. Origin of name: the origin of the name dubnium is the Joint Nuclear Institute at Dubna", an institute heavily involved in the search for heavy elements. Einsteinium is radioactive rare earth metal named after Albert Einstein. It is of no commercial importance and only a few of its compounds are known. einsteinium Einsteinium was discovered by Workers at Argonne, Los Alamos, USA, and the University of California at Berkeley, USA. at 1952 in USA. Atomic number: 99
• Atomic weight: 252 Fluorine is a Group 17 element. Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. It is a pale yellow, corrosive gas, which reacts with practically all organic and inorganic substances. Finely divided metals, glass, ceramics, carbon, and even water burn in fluorine with a bright flame. It is not uncommon to see fluorine spelled incorrectly as flourine. fluorine (F) Atomic number: 9
• Atomic weight: 18.9984032 (5) Fluorine was discovered by Henri Moissan at 1886 in France. Origin of name: from the Latin word "fluere" meaning "to flow". Germanium is a gray-white semi-metal, and in its pure state is crystalline and brittle, retaining its lustre in air at room temperature. It is a very important semiconductor material. Zone-refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use with an impurity of only one part in 10-10.

Certain germanium compounds have a low mammalian toxicity, but a clear activity against certain bacteria, which makes them of interest as chemotherapeutic agents. germanium (Ge) Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler at 1886 in Germany. Origin of name: from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany" Helium is one of the so-called noble gases. Helium gas is an unreactive, colourless, and odourless monoatomic gas. Helium is available in pressurised tanks.

Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen. α-particles are doubly ionised helium atoms, He2+.

Helium is used in lighter than air balloons and while heavier than hydrogen, is far safer since helium does not burn. Speaking after breathing an atmosphere rich in helium results in a squeaky voice (don't try it!).

Helium is present in the atmosphere at about 0.0005% (1 part in 200000) by volume and is an important component within hydrocarbon gases in the USA. Its origin in these gases is traced to the decay of radioactive elements in rocks. Helium (He) • Atomic number: 2
• Atomic weight: 4.002602 (2) iodine Iodine is a bluish-black, lustrous solid. It volatilises at ambient temperatures into a pretty blue-violet gas with an irritating odour.

It forms compounds with most elements, but is less reactive than the other halogens, which displace it from iodides. Iodine exhibits some metallic-like properties. It dissolves readily in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulphide to form beautiful purple solutions. It is only slightly soluble in water. Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine and photography. Lack of iodine is the cause of goitre (Derbyshire neck). The deep blue colour with starch solution is characteristic of the free element. It is assimilated by seaweeds from which it may be recovered, and is found in Chilean saltpetre, caliche, old salt brines, and salt wells.
• Atomic number: 53
• Atomic weight: 126.90447 (3)
Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois at 1811 in France. Origin of name: from the Greek word "iodes" meaning "violet". Krypton (Kr) Krypton is present in the air at about 1 ppm. The atmosphere of Mars contains a little (about 0.3 ppm) of krypton. It is characterised by its brilliant green and orange spectral lines. The spectral lines of krypton are easily produced and some are very sharp. In 1960 it was internationally agreed that the fundamental unit of length, the metre, should be defined as 1 m = 1,650,763.73 wavelengths (in vacuo) of the orange-red line of Kr-33.

Under normal conditions krypton is colourless, odourless, fairly expensive gas. Solid krypton is a white crystalline substance with a face-centered cubic structure which is common to all the "rare gases". Krypton difluoride, KrF2, has been prepared in gram quantities and can be made by several methods.
Atomic number: 36
• Atomic weight: 83.798
Krypton was discovered by Sir William Ramsay, Morris W. Travers at 1898 in Great Britain. Origin of name: from the Greek word "kryptos" meaning "hidden". Lead (Pb) Lead is a bluish-white lustrous metal. It is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is very resistant to corrosion but tarnishes upon exposure to air. Lead pipes bearing the insignia of Roman emperors, used as drains from the baths, are still in service. Alloys include pewter and solder. Tetraethyl lead (PbEt4) is still used in some grades of petrol (gasoline) but is being phased out on environmental grounds.

Lead isotopes are the end products of each of the three series of naturally occurring radioactive elements.
Atomic number: 82
• Atomic weight: 207.2 (1)
Lead was discovered by Known since ancient times at no data in not known. Origin of name: from the Anglo-Saxon word "lead; Latin, plumbum" (the origin of the symbol Pb is the Latin word "plumbum" meaning "liquid silver". Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium is a grayish-white, fairly tough metal. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust although not found in it's elemental form. It is a Group 2 element (Group IIA in older labelling schemes). Group 2 elements are called alkaline earth metals. Magnesium metal burns with a very bright light.

Magnesium is an important element for plant and animal life. Chlorophylls are porphyrins based upon magnesium. The adult human daily requirement of magnesium is about 0.3 g day-1
Neon (Ne) Neon is a very inert element. Neon forms an unstable hydrate. In a vacuum discharge tube, neon glows reddish orange. Of all the rare gases, the discharge of neon is the most intense at ordinary voltages and currents. It is present in the atmosphere as 1 part in 65000.

Liquid neon has over 40 times more refrigerating capacity than liquid helium, and more than 3 times that of liquid hydrogen.
Atomic number: 10
• Atomic weight: 20.1797 (6)
Neon was discovered by Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers in 1898 very shortly after their discovery of the element krypton. OXYGEN (O) Oxygen is a Group 16 element. While about one fifth of the atmosphere is oxygen gas, the atmosphere of Mars contains only about 0.15% oxygen. Oxygen is the third most abundant element found in the sun, and it plays a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle, one process responsible for stellar energy production. Oxygen in excited states is responsible for the bright red and yellow-green colours of the aurora. About two thirds of the human body, and nine tenths of water, is oxygen. The gas is colourless, odourless, and tasteless. Liquid and solid oxygen are pale blue (see picture above) and strongly paramagnetic (contains unpaired electrons). Atomic number: 8
Atomic weight: 15.9994 (3)
Oxygen was discovered by Joseph Priestley, Carl Scheele at 1774 in England, Sweden. Origin of name: from the Greek words "oxy genes" meaning "acid" (sharp) and "forming" (acid former) Phosphorus (P) Phosphorus is commonly misspelled "phosphorous". It is an essential component of living systems and is found in nervous tissue, bones and cell protoplasm. Phosphorus exists in several allotropic forms including white (or yellow), red, and black (or violet). White phosphorus has two modifications. Ordinary phosphorus is a waxy white solid. When pure, it is colourless and transparent. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulphide. It catches fire spontaneously in air, burning to P4O10, often misnamed as phosphorus pentoxide. When exposed to sunlight, or when heated in its own vapour to 250°C, it is converted to the red variety. This form does not ignite spontaneously and it is a little less dangerous than white phosphorus. The red modification is fairly stable and sublimes with a vapour pressure of 1 atmosphere at 417°C. Atomic number: 15
• Atomic weight: 30.973762 (2)
Phosphorus was discovered by Hennig Brand at 1669 in Germany. Origin of name: from the Greek word "phosphoros" meaning "bringer of light" (an ancient name for the planet Venus?). Radon (Rn) At ordinary temperatures radon is a colorless gas. When cooled below the freezing point, radon exhibits a brilliant phosphorescence which becomes yellow as the temperature is lowered and orange-red at the temperature of liquid air. The main hazard is from inhalation of the element and its decay products which are collected on dust in the air. Recently, radon buildup in homes from the surrounding soil and rocks has become a safety issue and some areas around the world test homes for radon gas. It is the heaviest known gas. Radon is present in some spring waters. Atomic number: 86
• Atomic weight: [ 222 ]
Radon was discovered by Friedrich Ernst Dorn at 1900 in Germany. Origin of name: named after "the element radium" (radon was called niton at first, from the Latin word "nitens" meaning "shining". Sulfur (S) Sulphur (sulfur) is a pale yellow, odourless, brittle solid, which is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulphide. Sulphur is essential to life. It is a minor constituent of fats, body fluids, and skeletal minerals.

The spelling of sulphur is "sulfur" in the USA while sulphur is common elsewhere. IUPAC has does not have jurisdiction over language but has decided sulfur is preferred.

Sulphur is found in meteorites, volcanoes, hot springs, and as galena, gypsum, Epsom salts, and barite. It is recovered commercially from "salt domes" along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

Jupiter's moon Io owes its colours to various forms of sulphur. A dark area near the crater Aristarchus on the moon may be a sulphur deposit. Carbon disulphide, hydrogen sulphide, and sulphur dioxide should be handled extremely carefully. Hydrogen sulphide in very small concentrations can be metabolized, but in higher concentrations it can cause death quickly by respiratory paralysis. It is insidious in that it quickly deadens the sense of smell. Sulphur dioxide is a dangerous component in atmospheric air pollution and is one of the factors responsible for acid rain.
Sulfur was discovered by Known since ancient times at no data in not known. Origin of name: from the Sanskrit word "sulvere" meaning "sulphur"; also from the Latin word "sulphurium" meaning "sulphur". titanium (Ti) Titanium was discovered by William Gregor at 1791 in England. Origin of name: named after the "Titans", (the sons of the Earth goddess in Greek mythology Titanium s a lustrous, white metal when pure. Titanium minerals are quite common. The metal has a low density, good strength, is easily fabricated, and has excellent corrosion resistance. The metal burns in air and is the only element that burns in nitrogen. It is marvellous in fireworks.

Titanium is resistant to dilute sulphuric and hydrochloric acid, most organic acids, damp chlorine gas, and chloride solutions. Titanium metal is considered to be physiologically inert.

Titanium is present in meteorites and in the sun. Some lunar rocks contain high concentrations of the dioxide, TiO2. Titanium oxide bands are prominent in the spectra of M-type stars.
Atomic number: 22
• Atomic weight: 47.867 (1)
uranium (U) Uranium is of great interest because of its application to nuclear power and nuclear weapons. Uranium contamination is an emotive environmental problem. It is not particularly rare and is more common than beryllium or tungsten for instance. Atomic number: 92
• Atomic weight: 238.02891 (3
Uranium was discovered by Martin Klaproth at 1789 in Germany. Origin of name: named after "the planet Uranus". vanadium (V) Pure vanadium is a greyish silvery metal, and is soft and ductile. It has good corrosion resistance to alkalis, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and salt waters. The metal oxidizes readily above 660°C to form V2O5. Industrially, most vanadium produced is used as an additive to improve steels. Atomic number: 23
• Atomic weight: 50.9415
Vanadium was discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio and Nils Sefström at 1801 in Mexico and Sweden. Origin of name: named after "Vanadis", the goddess of beauty in Scandinavian mythology. xenon(Xe) Xenon is a "noble" or "inert" gas present in the atmosphere to a small extent. Xenon is present in the Martian atmosphere to the extent of about 0.08 ppm. Before 1962, it was generally assumed that xenon and other noble gases were unable to form compounds. Among the compounds of xenon now reported are xenon hydrate, sodium perxenate, xenon deuterate, difluoride, tetrafluoride, hexafluoride, and XePtF6 and XeRhF6. The highly explosive xenon trioxide, XeO3, is known.Metallic xenon is produced by applying several hundred kilobars of pressure. Xenon in a vacuum tube produces a blue glow when excited by an electrical discharge and finds use in strobe lamps. It is an odourless, colourless, inert gas.
Atomic number: 54
• Atomic weight: 131.293 (6)
Xenon was discovered by Sir William Ramsay, Morris W. Travers at 1898 in England. Origin of name: from the Greek word "xenos" meaning "stranger" ytterbium (Yb) Ytterbium has a bright silvery lustre, is soft, malleable, and quite ductile. While the element is fairly stable, it should be kept in closed containers to protect it from air and moisture. Ytterbium is readily attacked and dissolved by mineral acids and reacts slowly with water. Atomic number: 70
• Atomic weight: 173.054
Ytterbium was discovered by Jean de Marignac at 1878 in Switzerland. Origin of name: named after the village of "Ytterby" near Vaxholm in Sweden. ZINC Zinc-deficient animals require 50% more food to gain the same weight of an animal supplied with adequate amounts of zinc. Zinc is not particularly toxic and is an essential element in the growth of all animals and plants.Plating thin layers of zinc on to iron or steel is known as galvanising and helps to protect the iron from corrosion.
Atomic number: 30
• Atomic weight: 65.38
Zinc was discovered by Andreas Marggraf at 1746 in Germany. Origin of name: from the German word "zink Atomic number: 32
• Atomic weight: 72.64 Atomic number: 9
• Atomic weight: 18.9984032
BY: Carson Freeman
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