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Transcript of Diversity Presentation
Acts and Policies
Education Bilton et al, 2002, Introductory Sociology, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire Theories of Class Weber Max Weber "Society cannot be stratified be economics factors alone; status and party coincide and overlap with class as alternative bases for stratification" (Marsh, 2006, p219) Weber focused on the notion of 'power'. Power is the ability of a person or a group of people to get what they desire, even against the odds. Power comes in three spheres: Economic (class) Social (status) Political (party) Social Class Scales There are 2 scales on which individuals in society are marked against to place them into a class: Registrar General scale National statistics socio-economic classification (NS – SEC) These social scales measure various variables such as:
caste Giddens, A, 2001, Sociology, Polity Press, Cambridge "A category of people having a common relation to the means of production" (Marshall, 1998, p75) In the past few decades there has been a shift in the class divisions as a result of Thatcher. "Thatcher's social revolution during the 1980s was in part an attempt to dismantle the established hierarchy, while the major government of the mid 1990s proclaimed its intention to create a classless society" (Bilton, 2002, p73) Register General Scale 1. Professional 2. Managerial/Technical 3. Skilled (non-manual) 3b. Skilled (manual) 4. Partly skilled 5. Unskilled 6. Other National statistics socio-economic classification (NS – SEC) Class 1. Higher managerial and professional occupations Class 1.1 Large employers and high managerial occupations Class 1.2 Higher professional occupations Class 2 Lower managerial and professional occupations Class 3 Intermediate occupations Class 4 Small employers and own account workers Class 5 Lower supervisory and technical occupations Class 6 Semi routine occupations Class 7 Routine occupations Class 8 Never worked and long term unemployment (Office for national statistics) Class Is class dead? How has class changed? What relevence does class hold in modern society? What factors contribute to social mobility, and how? Meritocracy - Dominant Ideology How it is relevant? Critique Social Mobility . . Pyramid Education Race Gramsci Lottery Starbucks Chris
Eubank Diamond Our thoughts and background Questionnaire Results Stuart
Middle Class Megan
Working Class Manisha
Working Class Paul
Middle Class Tom
Working Class Your Thoughts? Olympic Opening Ceremony 2012 Haralambos, M, Holborn, M, 2000, Sociology:Themes and Perspectives, Haper Collins Publishers Ltd, London Marsh, I, 2006, Sociology:Making sense of Society, Pearson Education Ltd, Essex Marshall, G, 1998, Dictionary of Sociology, Oxford University Press, Oxford Johnson, A, 2000, The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology, Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Oxford The opening ceremony to thee Olympics 2012 witnessed an array of performances. This included the transition through the industrial revolution and the beginning of the break down of the class system. Olympic, 2012, Industril Revolution Sequence of the opening ceremony, Youtube, accessed at http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=7QL_uG2GSZo on 2012 Meritocracy is defined as "government or the holding of power by people selected according to merit" (Simpson) Simpson, J, 2012, The Oxford Dictionary online, Oxford University Press, accessed at http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/meritocracy 20/12/2012 Through Meritocracy individuals are placed into their classes. The harder the work the high class you will therefore be in. Meritocracy is different to all other types of systems. This is because individuals are placed into their respective positions because they "deserve" to be there based on their hard work. This makes the Meritocratic system functional - it is seen as practical and useful. Meritocracy was initially brought into Sociology through the sociologists Parsons One main problem with Meritocracy is the definition of Merit. One person may see one thing as a Merit when another may not. Meritocracy as has been called a myth as a result to keep the status quo As a group we decided to do some further research of our own on class. A questionnaire was made up of both qualitative and quantitative questions giving us detailed and statistical data. Each of us had to find 10 people to sample and it was to be done conveniently to reach the quota of ten and give us 50 participants. Definition "A set of social relationships which allow individuals and groups to be located, and various attributes or competencies assigned, on the bases of biologically grounded features." (Giddens, 2009, p1129) References Giddens, A, 2009, Sociology, 6th ed, Polity Press, Cambridge Gilligan, A, 2010 John Denham's right: It's class, not race, that determines Britain's have-nots, The Telegraph, accessed at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/6990253/John-Denhams-right-Its-class-not-race-that-determines-Britains-have-nots.html on 07/01/2013 Class is becoming more and more of a problem on the grounds of discrimination than race
Racism alone cannot explain peoples varied positions within society The Pyramid depicts a visible tiny upper class and a majority working class
Post-industrial society Played every week by a number of people
Lower and working class spend more on the lottery than middle and upper class Appeal to an upper class market
Seen in the media recently for not paying corporation tax for the past 14 years
Rich keep hold of their social status Groves, J and Campbell, P. 2012, Starbucks set to cave in and pay more tax after threats of boycott at its 'immoral' financial dealings. Accessed at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2242596/Starbucks-pay-tax-public-outcry-financial-dealings.html on 07/01/2013 Lives up to the stereotypes of someone who is of an upper class
Feels more accepted by society when he puts on an act Hegemony Defined as "The entire complex of practical and theortical activities with which the ruling class not only justifies and maintains its dominance, but manages to maintain the active consent of those over whom rules it" (p615, Haralambos) Hegemony was not obtained through force but through manipulation Hegemony could only survive if it compromised and take into account demands from the exploited (Working) Class With the movement in industry from
manual to service in post-industrial
societies as well as the changes in
Education the basic three level structure
of class does not seem to be accurate. The working and lower middle classes extended with the majority
of people having the opportunity to education, but a minority poverty
class much like the tiny upper class was formed. Class - to conclude Is class dead? How has class changed? What relevence does class hold in modern society? What factors contribute to social mobility, and how? Social mobility is the movement of people between social classes and it occurs between generations, for example an individual born into a working class family can move into a middle class status, this is mostly determined by occupation and career. It has been agreed that there have been high rates of upward social mobility since the 1960’s (Bruce and Yearley, 2006). It is an important social concept Many people in the lower classes aim for upward social mobility to provide them with security. A movement was made after the war to create equal opportunities for people in society within the education system In 1944 The Education Act was introduced which entitled all children to education It has been agreed that there have been high rates of upward social mobility since the 1960’s. This means that more people have been earnt their positions in the class system making it a more meritocratic society. Class discrimination is getting worse
“A working class Londoner is more trapped [and] less likely to advance [in today's society] than he or she was 30 years ago.” (Gilligan, A, 2010) We asked participants what class they would put themselves in and found that the majority would consider themselves working class. The question 'What is class?' gave a genral consensus of four main responses :
-Place in society
-Wealth Has classed changed? The majority of people said yes, giving examples such as celebrities changing the concept of class . Others noted the gap between the middle and upper class becoming bigger Is class something you concern yourself with? This gave a divided opinion from the paricipants. Jobs, friends and lifestyle are still something that would make you concerned with your class. Moving up/down the class system Two thirds said that you can move up or down the class ladder, most saying opportunities are equal in todays society, and if you work hard mobility is possible. Ever felt advantaged/disadvanged because of your class? Answers gave mixed views with people saying yes in terms of job and education opportunities, and participants saying no as most believe everyone has the same opportunities. Is class still relevant? 84% of our participants said that class is still relevant in todays society. Many gave examples of how different political parties appeal to different classes, and again the issue of the gap between classes is still evident.