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Developing Effective Communication in Health and Social Care

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Alana Danielle Hayles

on 25 September 2014

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Transcript of Developing Effective Communication in Health and Social Care

Communication Theories
The Communication Cycle by Michael Argyle
vs
Group Theory by Bruce Tuckman
vs
SOLER by Gerald Egan
The Communication Cycle by Michael Argyle
Michael Argyle believed that skilled interpersonal interaction involves a cycle where you have to translate or 'decode' what other people are communicating to you, but also about how we have to adapt our own behaviour in order to communicated effective with others. In social situations we must be able to work out what another person's behaviour means.
6 Stages of communication
First stage - Ideas Occur
You have an idea which you wish to communication with another person.
Second stage - Message Coded
You put your thoughts into language, you think about what you want to say before you say it. This includes the tone and speed in which you communicate.
Third Stage - Message Sent
Speak, Sign or Write your message to the other person.
Fourth Stage - Message Received
Other person senses your message, this could be through hearing the words, or whether they see it, e.g. sign language
Fifth Stage - Message Decoded
Other person interprets what you have said to them, this includes using your body language and the tone of your voice.
Sixth Stage - Idea Understood
If communication is successful then your message will have been fully understood.


Theory Number 3 - SOLER
The 4 Stages of -
Group Development
The progression of the model...
How did SOLER occur?
Gerard Egan made a theory of communication using by creating an acronym in order to build the components to be able to communicate with others.

In health and social care settings it is used to guide practitioners when dealing with vulnerable clients.

SOLER...
S - Sit Attentively at an Angle

O - Open Posture

L - Leaning Forward

E - Eye Contact

R - Relaxed Body Language
Norming Stage -
This stage is where the roles and responsibilities become apparent within the group, but also the main leader becomes clear. Also people will tend to split off into sub groups where they can make their own rules.

Developing Effective Communication in Health and Social Care

Alana Danielle Hayles

Bruce Tuckman (1938- ) was also a psychologist, however he created the 'Four Stages of Group Formation' in 1965.
Michael Argyle (1925-2002) was a psychologist who created the
'The Communication Cycle' in 1972.
Car Theory
Michael Argyle created a car theory in which he believed that 'interpersonal communication' was like driving a car. He said that it involved building an understanding of listening, observing and reflection on what people are trying to communicate with one another.
Theory Number 2
Bruce Tuckman's -
Group Theory
Dr Bruce Tuckman produced his group development stages in 1965. It had 4 different levels which include:
Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing

The focal point for Tuckman's theory is the way in which a group of people work together to become a team.
For example, when a group of strangers are put into a group to work together.
Forming Stage -

This stage is known as the getting to know you stage. At this stage, usually people exchange basic information, however still may be reserved and anxious about the situation.
Storming Stage -
This stage is called the storming stage because it is the stage in which you decide on who you like and who you do not like. The people who wish to be leaders show their true colours and there may be a few arguments within the group about power. Personalities start to show, which could create a clash of power
Performing Stage -
This stage is where the groups are usually set in stone and everyone tends to be on the same level about their place and status within the group. Also everyone will have a shared vision about what they all want to achieve, and the goals of the task at hand. At this final stage everyone in the group knows how to resolve any issues that they are involved in.
In terms of a health and social setting usually you ned to be able to decode most of the messages correctly, from your clients/patients and even co-workers and this ensures that all important information is received by all.
Gerard Egan was a professor who created the 'SOLER' model
Sit attentively at an angle -
It is important that as a practitioner that you angle yourself towards the service user, so that they know that you are listening attentively. But also that you are engaged in the conversation and show them that you are still interested.

Open Posture -
Having an open posture when speaking to clients is important. Having your arms open, rather that sitting or standing with your arms folded, shows a closed person and can sometimes cause offence. Also means sometimes people will be less inclined to share any information.

Leaning Forward -
When speaking to clients, practitioners can show that they are interested by leaning forward towards the client. Also by leaning in towards the client, they may feel more comfortable around the practitioner and may want to speak about more personal issues that they have. When leaning forward and speaking in a quieter and lower tone of voice, clients will be more likely to return with any other problems.


Eye contact with the client shows that you are focused on what they are trying to say. Also you are able to see a person's emotional state by making eye contact.

Eye Contact
Relaxed Body Language
Relaxed body language shows to the client that you are not trying to rush them and that you are taking all the information in. A relaxed body language allows clients enough time to create a response to any questions the practitioners have asked.
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