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Andrés Hernández Perdomo

on 5 October 2014

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Transcript of SENTENCE TYPES

But, what do you know about conjunctions?
Definition: A conjunction is a word which connects two words or clauses or sentences and shows the relation between them. They are used to avoid making the text seem like bullet points and to make the text flow. (http://www.englishleap.com/grammar/conjunctions)

Jai saw a dog on the road. He decided to adopt the dog. Jai brought the dog home.
Jai saw a dog on the road and decided to adopt the dog, so he brought the dog home.

Here ‘and’ and ‘so’ are conjunctions which are used to join the sentences and show the relation between them.

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How many types of sentences exist?
In English, there are five types of sentences by purpose:

Sentence type
Compound - complex
But, what do they mean?

Let's see some examples:
I'll meet you at the train station.
The sun rises in the East.
Open the door.
Finish your homework.
When does the bus leave?
Do you enjoy listening to classical music?
Hurry up!
That sounds fantastic!
“If I had a billion dollars, I would buy a castle made of chocolate.”

Simple sentences contain no conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).
Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).
Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator (i.e, which, who, although, despite, if, since, etc.).
Compound - complex sentences contain at least one dependent clause and more than one independent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions (i.e., but, so, and, etc.) and subordinators (i.e., who, because, although, etc.)
Types of conjunctions:

Coordinating conjunctions are used to link or join two words or phrases that are equally important and complete in terms of grammar when compared with each other. That is to say, the sentences or words do not depend on anything to give themselves meaning.

There are seven main coordinating conjunctions -








These conjunctions are always placed between the two clauses or words that they are joining.
Subordinating are used to join an independent and complete clause with a dependent clause that relies on the main clause for meaning and relevance. The dependent clause cannot exist on its own as a sentence and often does not make sense without the main clause.

The subordinating conjunction always comes before the dependent clause but the dependent clause itself can be placed either ahead of or following the independent clause.

Since they had misbehaved, the boys were given one week suspensions from school.

Here, we see the dependent clause is ‘they had misbehaved’ which is not a valid sentence by itself.

The independent main clause is ‘the boys were given one week suspensions from school’.

They are joined by the subordinating conjunction ‘since’.

He was fond of playing basketball because it was his father’s favourite game.

In this sentence, because is the subordinating conjunction as it introduces the dependent clause ‘it was his father’s favourite game’

The main clause in this sentence is ‘he was fond of playing basketball’ as it is the sentence which can be said independently and still be grammatically correct.

Other subordinating conjunctions are - Although, As, Before, Once, Though, Until, Whether, etc.

Correlative Conjunctions are simply pairs of conjunctions used in a sentence to join different words or groups of words in a sentence together. Correlative Conjunctions are generally not used to link sentences themselves, instead they link two or more words of equal importance within the sentence itself. Some of the more commonly used correlative conjunctions are -

Both the shoes and the dress were completely overpriced.

This is an example of using the correlative conjunctions ‘both/and’ in a sentence. As you can see in this sentence, the ‘shoes’ and the ‘dress’ were equally important elements that needed to be given the same importance.

They should either change their strategy or just forfeit the game.

The ‘either/or’ conjunctions are used to suggest a choice between two options. Here the choice being suggested is between - ‘change their strategy’ or ‘forfeit the game’.

Just as she loves hiking so she enjoys travelling as well.

The correlative conjunctions ‘just as/so’ are used to link two phrases that have a similar theme or are referring to a similar thing together. This conjunction is used to show the correspondence between two phrases or words.

He neither helps around the house nor does he look for a job.

‘Neither/nor’ are conjunctions that are used to deny or negate words and phrases. In the case of ‘neither’, it gives two options that are both negated. ‘Nor’ is the negative form of ‘or’.

It doesn’t matter whether the roses are fresh or if they are drooping, just buy them.

‘Whether/or’ is used as a conjunction to show two different options in the sentence. The conjunction can be used both in a manner of negation and confirmation.

Coordinating conjunctions are of four kinds:

Additive (cumulative or copulative) conjunctions: merely add one statement to another. they don't express ideas such as contrast, choice or inference. Examples are: and, also, too, as well as, both…and, not only…but also…

He walked into the room and sat on the sofa. (Here the additive conjunction and merely adds the clauses ‘he walked into the room’ and ‘he sat on the sofa’.)
He was not only abused but also beaten. (Here the additive conjunction not only…but also… joins the two clauses ‘he was abused’ and ‘he was beaten’.)
These lessons are both free and useful.

Adversative coordinating conjunctions

They express a contrast between two statements in a sentence. Examples are: but, nevertheless, however, whereas, only, still etc.

He is poor but he is honest.
Wise men love truth, whereas fools shun it.
The captain was annoyed, still he kept quiet.
She was late, still she was not punished.

Alternative conjunctions express a choice between two alternatives. Examples are: or, nor, either…or, neither…nor, otherwise, else etc.

He is either a fool or a rogue.
You must leave this place at once or you will have to face the consequences.
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.
He knows nothing about this work, neither does he try to learn anything about it.

Inferential or illative conjunctions

These conjunctions introduce some inference. Examples are: therefore, for, so etc.

Work hard, for nobody can succeed without hard work.
He was lazy, therefore, he failed.

Read more: http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/kinds-conjunctions/#ixzz2ZK2SgDnu
A declarative sentence "declares" or states a fact, arrangement or opinion. Declarative sentences can be either positive or negative. A declarative sentences ends with a period (.).
The imperative form instructs (or sometimes requests). The imperative takes no subject as 'you' is the implied subject. The imperative form ends with either a period (.) or an exclamation point (!).
The interrogative asks a question. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb precedes the subject which is then followed by the main verb (i.e., Are you coming ....?). The interrogative form ends with a question mark (?).
The exclamatory form emphasizes a statement (either declarative or imperative) with an exclamation point (!).
A conditional sentence is used to express what one would do if a condition were met.
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