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B2.6 - Mitotic Cell Division

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on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of B2.6 - Mitotic Cell Division

Imagine you want to clone yourself - 2 of yourself from just you!
You want the 2 new “you’s” to be identical.
You need to replicate yourself and form dividing materials to help break yourself up!

You want to replicate yourself so that you and your clone both have 2 arms, legs, etc.

Cytokinesis
Last phase of cell cycle

Cytoplasm actually splits into 2 cells

Different in animal and plant cells

Mitosis
Makes 2 cells from 1
These new cells have their own DNA and cytoplasm
So first, interphase forms new info, then mitosis splits that info

4 stages of mitosis

Some Review...
We’ve been discussing cells and how all cells come from pre-existing cells (Cell Theory)
Cell Theory also says that all living organisms are made of cells

So organisms MUST need a way to replenish and replace old, dying cells if they’re completely composed of cells or else the organism will die

3 Cell Cycle Phases
Interphase
Grows, replicates, and makes division devices
Mitosis
Physically divides INFO into 2 sections, while remaining in the same cell
Cytokinesis
Officially divides 2 groups of info into 2 new cells

So how are cells replaced?
The cell cycle!

3 main phases of the cell cycle, which all play a part in forming new cells to replace old ones

Let’s think of an alternative scenario to understand the cell cycle

Cell Cycle
A way to “clone” cells

First, cells need to replicate their info

Then, they must form devices to help them divide the information into 2 parts

Interphase
Longest stage of the cell cycle
3 parts of interphase
G1
S
G2
Prophase
Chromosomes condense from chromatin stage to form chromosomes and become more visible


B2.6 - Mitotic Cell Division
G1
Cells grow and make proteins

DNA is RELAXED, so it can get ready for replication
Relaxed DNA is called
chromatin
S
Chromosomes replicate to form identical
sister chromatids
attached by a
centromere

Sister chromatids – 1 of 2 parts of the chromosome
Centromere – attaches sister chromatids

G2
Cells grow and produce proteins necessary for division

Check for mistakes in new DNA
Nuclear membrane dissolves
Harder to divide info when it’s contained in a nucleus
Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell

Lastly, spindle fibers move towards center of the cell

Chromosomes line up at equator (center) of the cell
Think of the equator of the Earth*
Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes
Metaphase
“Tug of war” occurs between opposing spindle fibers
Centromeres split
Sister chromatids separate and become chromosomes
Move to opposite ends of the cell

Anaphase
Chromosomes relax to form chromatin

Nuclear membrane begins to reform around 2 new groups of info

Spindle fibers break down and dissolve because they're no longer needed

Telophase
Animal Cell
Forms a cleavage furrow
In plant cells
Forms a cell plate
Full transcript