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Transcript of MOTIVATION
Fundamentals of Understanding Human Behavior
Levels of Motivation
In what direction does the individual behave?
How hard does the individual work?
How hard does the employee keep trying?
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsically motivated employees feel satisfaction in performing their work
Extrinsically motivated employees perform for the consequences associated with their job, i.e; pay and benefits
The Motivation-Performance Link
An employees' performance is influenced by:
Motivation, personal abilities and skills, level of organizational support
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Principles Underlying the Theory
Qualifying the Theory
The Different Generations: Some Insights for Motivation
Different generations with a variety of attitudes and values
Gives an idea how the individual will act
Other Motivational Theories
Lessons From the Theories: Five Steps to Motivating Employees
Help Make Employees' Jobs Intrinsically Rewarding
Provide Clear Performance Objectives
Support Employees' Performance Objectives
Provide Timely Performance Feedback
Reward Employees' Performance
Dissatisfiers and Motivators
Link to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Qualifying Herzberg's Theory
Most affected employees negatively
Poor job security
Things that "turned them on"
People take for granted
Power of Supervisors
Influence motivator factors
Assigning challenging jogs
Managers are not using these tools
Uses rewards and punishments that follow a person's behavior as a way to shape that individual's future behavior.
Views an individual's motivation as a more conscious effort involving the interplay of 3 variables:
Expectancy that effort will lead to a given performance result
Probability of rewards associated with the performance
The value of the reward to the individual
Goal Setting Theory
Edwin Locke's basic premise of this theory is that goals can be highly motivating if set properly and are well managed. He believes goal setting is of primary importance in enhancing individual motivation and job performance.
When people find themselves in situations of inequity or unfairness, they are motivated to act in ways to change their circumstances.
Motivating Through Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model
5 Structural Characteristics of Job Design
Example: McDonald's first drive-thru window employee
low variety, identity, significance, and autonomy with only some feedback.
Job Characteristics Model
Born prior to 1945
10% of the workforce
children of the depression and world war
strong family values
loyal and self-sacrificing
value hard work
satisfaction through a job well done - will stay with a company for a long time
45% of the workforce
socially skilled, ambitious, driven to succeed
believe in growth, change, and expansion
hard work with long hours
show loyalty towards employees
dislike authoritarianism and laziness
unnerved by today's downsizing and re- engineering
30% of workforce
both parents worked
many raised in single parent homes (due to 3x divorce rates)
independent, self-reliant, individualistic
employment relationship based on service for $ paid (not loyalty)
don't believe in paying their dues to achieve success
success meant following the opportunity
strong technical skills, but lack of social skills
thrive on autonomy
15% of workforce
globalism, economic expansion, prosperity, internet
electronic communication tech. at an early age
most diverse, highly-educated, and technically literate generation
strives to make a difference
emotionally mature (strong social stressors)
most willing to "rock the boat"
Motivating Through Generations
Having their supervisor’s respect
Feeling like they are making a real contribution
one theory that is particularly significant and practical was developed by psychologist Abraham H. Maslow and is known as the hierarchy of needs.
principles underlying the theory
the two principles underlying Maslows (Hierarchy of needs) theory are that #1:peoples needs can be arranged in a hierarchy, or ranking of importance, #2:once a need has been satisfied, it no longer serves a primary motivator of behavior.
ways of satisfying the need of the job
The need for food, water, air, and other physical necessities.
The need for protection from danger, threat, or deprivation.
The need for belonging, acceptance by colleagues, friendship, and love.
The need for self-confidence, independence, appreciation, and status.
Needs concerned with realizing one’s potential, self-development, and creativity
Qualifying The Theory
1:Needs on one level of the hierarchy do not have to be completely satisfied before needs on the next level become important.
2:The theory does not attempt to explain the behavior of the neurotic or the mentally disturbed.
3:Different people have different priorities. Some are less security oriented or achievement oriented than others.
4:Unlike the lower level needs, the two highest levels of needs can hardly ever be fully satisfied as new challenges and opportunities for growth, recognition, and achievement arise.