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Suprasegmentals

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by

Manu Rives

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Suprasegmentals

Suprasegmentals
Index
What are suprasegmentals?
Pitch and stress
Length
Intonation
Word juncture
Difference between tone & intonation
Conclusion and exercises
What are suprasegmentals?
Conceptual division of speech into:
Segmental
Suprasegmental
However, this division is not very clean.
Therefore, it is preferable to use the term "prosody" for refering these phenomena.
Length
Vowels: short or long

Symbol: /:/

Length is relative

Non-distinctive length
Short or long vowels?

Bead > Beat = Bag > Back
/bi:d/ /bi:t/
Adjacent phones

Two plus seven > Two plus eight
Distinctive Length
Some sounds are longer than others.

English vs. Korean

[mal] 'horse' [ma:l] 'speech'
[nun] 'eye' [nu:n] 'snow'
Other languages: vowel actually changes the meaning of words.
Hawaiian

[lolo] 'brain' [lo:lo] 'hardheaded'

English emotions

'Yes' vs. 'Yeeeees'

In English, it is impossible to find two words that are different ONLY by virtue of vowel length.

Pitch
An auditory sensation

Central role in intonation and tone.

High pitch if the rate of vibration is high.

Low pitch if the rate of vibration is low.

Fundamental frequency of the vocal folds.

A change of pitch may cause a change in meaning
PITCH RANGE

Personal pitch range.

Highest or lowest pitch level for speaking.

Stress
Stronger syllables
stressed syllables
The position of the stress can change the meaning of a word.
Import (noun) - Import (verb)

Tone languages
Strong or weak syllables depend on the tone
Stressed syllables
Greater effort

Pitch prominence

Longer and louder
Word stress
Break the string of words into separate tone-units.



Controversy
Importance of the meaning
VS
underlying syntactic structure.
Sentence stress
It may be more than one stressed syllable.

Stress-shift
Stress patern
particular context VS isolation
*Avoid two strong stresses coming close together.

*Preserve the rhytmical regularity of their speech.
Stress-timing
Stress time rhythm
Stressed syllables at equal intervals of time.
It is necessary for communication
Intonation
Intonation = "The melody of speech"
IMPORTANT: difference between intonation and word stress

To stress a
word
,
a syllable is said louder, longer or at a higher pitch

In regard to intonation, our voice goes up and down (a change of pitch) within a group of words. It resembles a line of melody.

The major tones of the English language are:
Rising intonation: the pitch of the voice rises over time.
High rise.

Low rise.

Falling intonation: the pitch falls with time.
High fall.

Low fall.

Dipping or Fall-rise: intonation falls and then raises.
Falling-rising.

Peaking or Rise-fall: intonation rises and then falls.
Rising-falling.
To sum up...
Functions of intonation in comunication exchange:
Difference between statements and questions
Between different types of questions
Focus on some specific elements in the message
Regulate conversational interaction
Express emotions, attitudes or feelings
Intonation is an essential component of the discourse structure of speech.
Difference between tone and intonation:
Tone
Pitch serves to distinguish words and grammatical categories.
Intonation
Variation of spoken pitch not used to distinguish words. Its function is show emotions and attitudes.
SUPRASEGMENTALS!
'If she hadn't been rich/she couldn't have bought it'
'fifteenth place ' vs 'fifteenth'
Word juncture
is a functional suprasegmental in English, because it changes the meaning of words

Therefore...
/bæk/ /bæg/
/
CONCLUSION
Any questions?
Thanks for your
attention!
Patricia Cutillas Osuna
Sergio Jaén Torregrosa
Manuel Rives Sala
Míriam Pacheco Gómez
Keely Sullivan

Exercises
References
ROACH, Peter (2009)ENGLISH PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY GLOSSARY (A LITTLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF PHONETICS)

ROACH, Peter (2001) Phonetics. Oxford Unniversity Press

http://liceu.uab.es/~joaquim/phonetics/fon_gen/Bib_fon_gen.html

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/intonation?q=intonation

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonation


Pitch & Stress
Lenght
Intonation
Yes? Do you like suprasegmentals?
Why do you like suprasegmentals so much?
I think it is a scha
Theˇdriver doesn’t know the way
High Pitch: Where are you?

Different levels of stress:
-Unbelievable
-Overwhelmimg

Low Pitch: It's over there

Stress-time: She told me to tell her a story of love.

-The tourists got on the ___ when it came

-I forgot the ___ where I wrote it down.

-The ___ of the necklace fell to the ground when the string broke.
Full transcript