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Transcript of Suprasegmentals
What are suprasegmentals?
Pitch and stress
Difference between tone & intonation
Conclusion and exercises
What are suprasegmentals?
Conceptual division of speech into:
However, this division is not very clean.
Therefore, it is preferable to use the term "prosody" for refering these phenomena.
Vowels: short or long
Length is relative
Short or long vowels?
Bead > Beat = Bag > Back
Two plus seven > Two plus eight
Some sounds are longer than others.
English vs. Korean
[mal] 'horse' [ma:l] 'speech'
[nun] 'eye' [nu:n] 'snow'
Other languages: vowel actually changes the meaning of words.
[lolo] 'brain' [lo:lo] 'hardheaded'
'Yes' vs. 'Yeeeees'
In English, it is impossible to find two words that are different ONLY by virtue of vowel length.
An auditory sensation
Central role in intonation and tone.
High pitch if the rate of vibration is high.
Low pitch if the rate of vibration is low.
Fundamental frequency of the vocal folds.
A change of pitch may cause a change in meaning
Personal pitch range.
Highest or lowest pitch level for speaking.
The position of the stress can change the meaning of a word.
Import (noun) - Import (verb)
Strong or weak syllables depend on the tone
Longer and louder
Break the string of words into separate tone-units.
Importance of the meaning
underlying syntactic structure.
It may be more than one stressed syllable.
particular context VS isolation
*Avoid two strong stresses coming close together.
*Preserve the rhytmical regularity of their speech.
Stress time rhythm
Stressed syllables at equal intervals of time.
It is necessary for communication
Intonation = "The melody of speech"
IMPORTANT: difference between intonation and word stress
To stress a
a syllable is said louder, longer or at a higher pitch
In regard to intonation, our voice goes up and down (a change of pitch) within a group of words. It resembles a line of melody.
The major tones of the English language are:
Rising intonation: the pitch of the voice rises over time.
Falling intonation: the pitch falls with time.
Dipping or Fall-rise: intonation falls and then raises.
Peaking or Rise-fall: intonation rises and then falls.
To sum up...
Functions of intonation in comunication exchange:
Difference between statements and questions
Between different types of questions
Focus on some specific elements in the message
Regulate conversational interaction
Express emotions, attitudes or feelings
Intonation is an essential component of the discourse structure of speech.
Difference between tone and intonation:
Pitch serves to distinguish words and grammatical categories.
Variation of spoken pitch not used to distinguish words. Its function is show emotions and attitudes.
'If she hadn't been rich/she couldn't have bought it'
'fifteenth place ' vs 'fifteenth'
is a functional suprasegmental in English, because it changes the meaning of words
Thanks for your
Patricia Cutillas Osuna
Sergio Jaén Torregrosa
Manuel Rives Sala
Míriam Pacheco Gómez
ROACH, Peter (2009)ENGLISH PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY GLOSSARY (A LITTLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF PHONETICS)
ROACH, Peter (2001) Phonetics. Oxford Unniversity Press
Pitch & Stress
Yes? Do you like suprasegmentals?
Why do you like suprasegmentals so much?
I think it is a scha
Theˇdriver doesn’t know the way
High Pitch: Where are you?
Different levels of stress:
Low Pitch: It's over there
Stress-time: She told me to tell her a story of love.
-The tourists got on the ___ when it came
-I forgot the ___ where I wrote it down.
-The ___ of the necklace fell to the ground when the string broke.