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Autonomous Quadcopter Using Arduino

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Ahmed Khalifa

on 6 July 2015

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Transcript of Autonomous Quadcopter Using Arduino

We
Indoor Autonomous Quadcopter Using Arduino
Presented By :
1. Ahmed Mohamed Khalifa
2. Basma Tarek Mansour
3. Ahmed Mustafa Naser
4. Mahmoud Ali Khater
5. Mustafa Mahmoud Mustafa
6. Shymaa Ahmed Ibrahim
7. Ibrahim Gomaa Ibrahim


Supervised By:
Dr. Mohammed El-dosuky
Introduction
Quadrotor concept
Arduino
QuadCopter
Two ways to build a quadcopter
Easy way Hard way
using a RC controller
1- Buy the Quad frame
2- Buy the RC controller
3- connect the quad to the RC controller
4- Enjoy the flight !
But we missing two important things :
1- The fun part of programming a quad
2- We learned Nothing !!
So this way can not be the way to our graduation project. Therefore we choose




Quadrotor
Hardware

Frame
Propellers
Brushless Motors
ESC
Battery
Charger
Ultrasonic Sensor
Arduino UNO
IMU
Is the body of the quad that holds all the components together
The material of our frame is from Aluminum because it's rigid and vibration absorbent
Is the distance between the center of one motor to the other motor in the same arm.
This distance determined the diameter of the propellers to avoid clashing by each other.
In each motor we mounted a propeller.
2 propellers are tilted to right and the other 2 propellers are tilted to the left.
the diameters of the propellers are depend on the Motor-to-Motor distance.
In our project we use the 10 Inch length and 4.5 Inch Pitch propeller
Powered by a Brushless source .
it's lighter than other motors and more powerful for carrying weights.
it gives high RPM, so it's more efficient.
We can control the speed of the motor as we wish
it has 3 wires connected to the ESC to vary the speed of the motor
Used to control an electric motor's speed.
The brushless motors are multi-phased, normally 3 phases, so direct supply of DC power will not turn the motors on. That’s where the Electronic Speed Controllers (ESC) comes into play.
The ESC generating three high frequency signals with different but controllable phases continually to keep the motor running
Supply all components with the required volt.
We use lithium polymer ( LiPo ) battery because it's lighter and high current battery
Is the basic control board in our project, takes inputs from switches and sensors or even from the computer directly to control the motors in the quad.
One of the amazing things about arduino is that the arduino can be stand-alone or can communicate with software running on computer.
It's compatible with our main software program >>Matlab.
1- Simple : simplified version of C++.

2- Inexpensive.


Another amazing things about Arduino is that we can attach alot of arduino shields on the main arduino board ( wi-fi shield , X-Bee shield , motor shields , LCD shields ).
1- buy all the components
2- must know how this components work together to make the quad work
3- connecting the components together
4- building the controller
5- writing the code
6- adding many application as we wish
In this way we are doing everything step by step:
Quadrotor
Definitoin:
A quadrotor, also called a quadcopter , that is lifted and propelled by four rotors.
Quadrotors use 4 propellers, 2 clockwise (CW) and 2 Anti-clockwise (ACW).
These use variation of RPM to control lift and torque. Control of vehicle motion is achieved by altering the rotation rate of one or more DC motors
A quad rotor consists of Brushless motors, each fitted in one end of a cross like Structure “Frame”.
Each rotor consists of a propeller fitted to a separately powered Brushless motor.
Propellers 1 and 3 rotate in the same direction while propellers 2 and 4 rotate in an opposite direction leading to balancing the total system torque and cancelling the gyroscopic and aerodynamics torques in stationary flights
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

The definition for UAVs varies from one literature to the other. For our purposes, UAVs are small aircrafts that are own without a pilot.
They can either be remotely operated by a human or they can be autonomous; autonomous vehicles are controlled by an on board computer that can be pre-programmed to perform a specific task or a broad set of tasks While in other literatures, UAVs may refer to powered or tethered or unmetered aerial vehicles
UAVs were mainly used in military application but recently they are
being deployed in civil applications too .
Block diagram of our Quadcopter ::
3- Cross platform: Run at any OS.

4-Open source and extensible software:
5- very speed processing time.

6- large storing memory.
IMU is Inerial Measure Unit , The basic function of this module is to make the quad stable in air.

It is an electronic sensing tool we use in order to determine the
gravitational forces, speed and orientation of the quad copter.

So the controlling devices use these calculations to know the changes in the speed of the motors.

The output from these sensors has been used to determine the angular location or manner of the quad copter.

Consist of 3 axis accelerometer and 3 axis gyroscope and a compass

The accelerometer determines the gravity that has been functionally applied to each axis.

The gyroscope determines the change in the angular rotation for each axis.

The sensors calculate the Roll,Pitch and Yaw to make the quad stable is air.
Objectives and Motivation
This project will focus on the Building, modeling and control of a quad rotor type UAV. The reason for choosing the quad rotor is in addition to its advantages that will be addressed later, the research field in Egypt is still facing some challenges in the control field because the quad rotor is a highly nonlinear, multivariable system and since it has six Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
History of UAVs ::
UAVs were first manufactured by Lawrence and Sperry (USA) in the
year 1916. They called it the Aviation Torpedo shown in they were able to fly it for a distance of 30 miles. It was reported that Lawrence and Sperry used a gyroscope to balance the body .
Applications of UAVs ::
Earth Science
Search and rescue
Wild fire suppression
Law enforcement
Industrial applications
Agriculture development
Research
Classification of UAVs ::
1-Range of Action Classification
- High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE)
- Medium-Altitude Long-Endurance (MALE)
- Medium-Range or Tactical UAV (TUAV)
- Close Range UAV
- Mini UAV (MUAV)
- Micro UAV (MAV)
- Nano Air Vehicles (NAV)
2-Aerodynamic Configuration Classification
A) Fixed-wing UAVs
B) Rotary-wing UAVs:
-Single-rotor -Coaxial
-Quad rotor -Multi-rotor
C) Blimps UAVs
D) Flapping-wing UAVs

Levels of Autonomy Classification ::
UAVs can be also classified according to their level of autonomy.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology published a framework that can be used to classify UAVs according to their autonomy level which is denned by three metrics namely:
1-Human Independence (HI)
2-Mission Complexity (MC)
3-Environmental Complexity (EC)
The framework proposes via levels of autonomy ::
(a) Level 1: Full human interaction is needed to operate these UAVs

(b) Level 2: Still require human interaction but can perform more complex missions than level 1 UAVs

(c) Level 3: Moderate level of human interaction with moderate mission complexity.

(d) Level 4: Minimal human interaction, used in missions where the environment is complex and
dynamic and the reaction time of human operator may not be sufficient to correctly navigate the UAV

(e) Level 5: Zero human interaction, used to carry out missions in the most complex
environments. Literature claims that level 5 UAVs do notcurrently exist and they serve as a goal for future research.
Quad rotor Configuration ::
The quad rotor is a 6 DOF object, thus 6 variables are used to express its
position in space (x, y, z), and X, y and z represent the distances of the
quad rotor’s center of mass along the x ,y and z axes respectively from an
Earth axed inertial frame
Yaw
(turning left and right) is controlled by turning up the speed of the regular rotating motors and taking away power from the counter rotating.
Roll
(tilting left and right) is controlled by increasing speed on one motor
and lowering on the opposite one.
Pitch
(moving up and down, similar to nodding) is controlled the same
Way as roll, but using the second set of motors
-To generate vertical upwards motion, the speed of the four propellers is increased together whereas the speed is decreased to generate vertical downwards motion.
-To produce roll rotation coupled with motion along the y-axis, the second and fourth propellers speeds are changed while for the pitch rotation coupled with motion along the x-axis, it is the rest and third propellers speeds that need to be changed
-One problem with the quad rotor configuration is that to produce yaw rotation, one need to
Have a difference in the opposite torque produced by each propeller pair
Our ESCs Specifications ::
Weight:
24g
Size:
45x25x4mm
Cells:
23S (Auto Detect)
Max Current:
25A
Burst:
30A
BEC:
3A
Our MOTORs Specifications ::
Rpm/V:
1400kv
Thrust:
600 gm
Voltage:
2S~3S (7.4v to 11.1v)
Max Current:
21A ESC - 40A

The power source and its capability depend on some computations:
● - Make a decision about how long you want for your flight time.
● - How much power the battery load ought to have on the total weight?
● - How much power your motors will require?
Specifications:-

Typical capacity
: 2250mAh
Typical Voltage:
11.1V
Dimensions:
24mm*34.0mm*103.0mm
Approx Weight
: 176g
Continuous Discharge Current:
35C (78.75A)
3 Cells
IMax B6 Digital LCD Lipo NiMh battery Balance Charger
- Individual cell balancing Li-ion, LiPo and LiFe capable Ni-
Cd and NiMH capable Large range of charge currents
Store function, allows safe storage current
- Time limit function
- Data storage (Store up to 5 packs in memory)
- Support new generation A123 system (LiFe) battery
- Can charge 6 cells LiPo battery (B5 can charge maximum
5 cells)
ultrasonic sensor provides an easy method of distance measurement. This sensor is perfect for any number of applications that require you to perform measurements between moving or stationary objects.


Detecting range
: 3cm-4m
Best in 30 degree angle
5V DC power supply
Breadboard friendly
Electronic brick compatible interface
Features ::
What is Arduino?
Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and
control more of the physical world than your desktop computer.
It's an open source Physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment
for writing software for the board.

Arduino is an open source tool used for building electronics projects.
Arduino consists of a physical programmable circuit board (often referred
to as a microcontroller) and a development environment, or IDE
(Integrated Development Environment) that runs on your computer, used
to write and upload computer code to the board.
Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects,
taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and
other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be standalone, or they can communicate with software running on your computer .

The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled. The Arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring, a similar physical computing platform, which is based on the Processing
multimedia programming environment.
An Arduino board consists of an Atmel 8,
16 or 32bit AVR microcontroller with complementary components that facilitate programming and
incorporation into other circuits.
The Hardware
The Arduino integrated development environment (IDE)
is a cross platform application written in Java, and derives from the IDE for the Processing programming language and the Wiring projects.
It is designed to introduce programming to artists and other newcomers unfamiliar with software development. It includes a code editor with features such as syntax highlighting, brace matching, and automatic indentation, and is also capable of compiling and uploading programs to the board with a single click. A program or code written for Arduino is called a "sketch".
Arduino programs are written in C or C++.
Arduino also simplifies the process of working
with microcontrollers, but it offers some advantage for teachers, students, and interested amateurs
over other systems:
Why Arduino
Arduino Applications
-Audio electronics
-Automotive
-Cameras
-Computer systems
-Drones
-Machines and tools
-Medical devices
-Networking
-Robotics
-Scientific hardware
Arduino in Our Project
We build an open source Quad rotor unmanned aerial vehicle platform based on the Arduino platform.
The Quad rotor runs on Arduino Uno.
features
Microcontroller:
ATmega328
Operating Voltage
: 5V
Digital I/O Pins
: 14
Analog Input Pins
: 6
DC Current per I/O Pin
: 40 ma
DC Current for 3.3V Pin
: 50 ma
Flash Memory
: 32 KB
SRAM:
2 KB
Clock Speed
: 16 MHz
Weight:
25 g
Software Engineering
The description of our use-cases is as follows:

View Video Feed ::
Operator views a live video feed from the quad
copter from the application running on PC.

Send Video Feed ::
The quad copter processes the video feed from
the camera and transmits it to the PC
• PC send a command to move the quad copter in a certain direction.


Detect Collision ::
Sensors feed data into quad copter and software
uses data to detect a collision.

Avoid Collision ::
Quad copter reroutes movement to avoid an
incoming collision that was detected.
the Hard way
Simulation
Future-Work and Conclusion
Flow chart
Use case model
Gantt chart
Project Management
Problem of Landmines in Egypt
-Egypt is the most affected country by landmines
-There are nearly 22.7 million landmines ,This constitutes
more than 20% of the total landmines worldwide,
17.2 million of which are in the western desert.
-The mines have caused human deaths in inflicted areas.
Statistics indicate that there were 8313
-Egypt was unable to benefit from promising areas ::
1-The Qattara Depression project
2-North Western Coast enjoy great oil and mineral wealth
3-a new developmental society between Alexandria and
Matrouh

A major problem emerged regarding the region of Western Desert (the North Western strategic direction), which is the severe lack in information whether about the location of the landmines,their different types, or the places that might contain traces of war machinery.
Egyptian armed forces alone removed 3 million landmines from 387300
Hectares in the Western Desert since 1981 with a cost of nearly 27 million Dollars.
How to use Quad rotor to detect landmines
it’s a typical quad rotor with geophysical method that uses radar
pulses to image the subsurface like the Ground penetrating radar
(GPR) which use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band of the
radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface
structures.
GPR Preview
GPR uses high frequency radio waves, usually
in the range 10 MHz to 1 GHz.
A GPR transmitter emits electromagnetic energy
into the ground. When the energy encounters a buried
object or a boundary between materials having different
dielectric constants, it may be reflected or refracted or
scattered back to the surface.
A receiving antenna can then record the variations
in the return signal.
GPR has many applications in a number of fields, In the Earth sciences it
is used to study bedrock, soils, groundwater, and ice.
Engineering applications include nondestructive testing (NDT) of
structures and pavements, locating buried structures and utility lines, and
studying soils and bedrock. In environmental remediation, GPR is used to
define landfills, contaminant plumes, and other remediation sites, while in
archaeology it is used for mapping archaeological features and
cemeteries. GPR is used in law enforcement for locating clandestine
graves and buried evidence. Military uses include detection of mines,
unexploded ordnance, and tunnels
GPR Applications
Architecture for quad rotor landmine detection
Its amazing maneuverability and the ease to fly in constricted locations have achieved itself a remarkable position in the aviation sector.
The goal of this work was understand the concepts and use of accelerometer & detection sensors, micro-controllers and wireless communication in designing and controlling a Quad copter.
Also develop codes to stabilize the states of the quad rotor and delivered the problem of landmines in Egypt and a quad rotor as a solution.
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