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Transcript of Motivation
Functions & Origin
Classification of Motives
●give life its feeling and meaning
●without emotions, things would be quite a routine and dull
●a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular
pattern of physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior.
●cannot change or control
●cannot observed or measured directly
- Because it inferred from observable phenomena of 3 types :\
∞ Reports of Experiences
∞ Expressive motor Behavior
There are only two basic emotions that we all experience, love and fear. All other emotions are variations of these two emotions.
Thoughts and behavior come from either a place of love, or a place of fear. Anxiety, anger, control, sadness, depression, inadequacy,
confusion, hurt, lonely, guilt, shame, these are all fear-based emotions. Emotions such as joy, happiness, caring, trust, compassion,
truth, contentment, satisfaction, these are love-based emotions.
But some psychologist identified three basics emotion, nine, and some are eight.
Two (2) Basics Emotion
Motivation and Emotion are closely related concepts for Three Reason:
1. The arousal of emotions activates behavior as motives do.
When we are angry, we are likely to strike out at the object of our anger or talk too much.
2. Motives are accompanied by emotions.
The motive to perform well on a test is companied by anxiety because of pressure.
3. Emotions typically have motivational properties of their own.
When you are in love, you are motivated to be with your special person.
Theories of Emotion
William James believed that the emotional stimulus is routed (by the sensory relay center known as thalamus) directly to the hypothalamus,
which produces the bodily reaction (fear or other emotion). The sensations from this bodily reaction are then sent back to the cortex which
produces what we feel is the conscious experience of emotion.
A number of years later, Carl Lange proposed the same theory known as
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
proposes the conscious emotional
experiences are caused by the
feedback to the cerebral cortex from
physiological reactions and behavior
Walter Cannon proposed an alternative theory of his own. This states that the connscious emotional experiences and physiological reaction and behavior are relatively independents events. The theory was later revised by Philip Bard, known
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer views in the emotional stimuli or events in the outside world and stimuli within the body as the key of the elements in emotion. They believe that emotional arousal is diffused and not specific to different emotions.
Emotion focuses on the interaction between physical arousal and how we cognitively label that arousal. In other words, simply feeling arousal is not enough; we also must identify the arousal in order to feel the emotion.
Two Steps in Process of Cognitive Interpretation in Emotions:
1. The Interpretation of stimuli from the environment.
A stimulus from the external world is based on the idea that individuals are not affected by the events but the individual’s interpretation
2. The Interpretation of stimuli from the body resulting from autonomic arousal.
Resembles the James-Lange Theory in emphasizing the importance of internal bodily stimuli in the experience of emotion but goes further cognitive interpretation stimuli is more important in stimuli.
- refers to an internal state or condition that activates behavior and give it direction
- lead to activity rather inactivity
Two components of motives
- are based on some deficit within the person. The deficit may
be physiological or psychological. The deficit must lie
within the person.
- are based on needs and have the added feauture of an
observable change in behavior.
Functions of motives
* First, they energize the person
* Second, motives have a directing function
* Lastly, motives have a selecting function
Origin of the motives
Motives originated from a
source or from an
Theories of Motivation
1. Instinct Theory
People act the way they do because of their
Instinctual behavior follows an inborn plan that allows for substantial flexibility in the course of development.
2. Drive Theory
Drive theory states that the potential level of any response
is a joint function of the response habit, strength and the person's
3. Arousal Theory
This theory stipulates that a moderate level of stimulation is
reinforcing. An increase in the level of tensions or excitement is referred to as arousal.
4. Opponent Process Theory
According to Richard Solomon, a state of positive feeling is
is followed by a contrasting negative feeling and vice versa.
5. Incentive Theory
The basic consumption of
theory is that if a desirable
goal can be anticipated following the completion of a particular action, the organism is motivated to perform that action.
- is the term used to define
the state of tension that occurs when a need is not met.
- is the external stimuli in
the environment that "pull" the organisms in certain directions
- an innate or generally predetermined
disposition to behave in a particular
way when confronted with certain
Classification of Motives
PRIMARY MOTIVES: Biological Needs
- are those directly related to the normal
- also known as
- Homeostatic Mechanism
: The Regulation of Food Intake
* Hypothalamus - the biological
center for hunger, not the rumbling of stomach
Two systems that regulates hunger
- Feeding System
- Satiety System
: The Regulation of Water Intake
* Hypothalamus uses three principal cues in regulating drinking:
loss of water by cell
reduction in blood volume
3. Sexual Motivation
- is essential to the survival of species
- provocative stimuli
4. Drive Reduction
- holds the view that motives are based on
on the body's need to restore homeostasis
when its biological needs are unmet
+ External Stimuli
Psychological motives are not directly related to
the biological survival of the individual. They are need in the sense that individual’s happiness and well being depended on these motives. Some psychological motives are innate and some are entirely learned.
This means that people and animals have an
apparently inborn motive to seek stimulation.
This theory tells us that many human motives
that arise when a means to an end becomes an end in itself.
Human beings are social creature. This is the
need to be with other people and to have personal relationships.
This is a psychological need for success in
school, sports, occupation and other competitive situations.
Biological / Physiological
Self - fulfillment, achievement of personal goals and transcending beyond oneself
Arts, harmony, appreciation and value of nature
Knowledge, truth, education
Self - respect, reputation, and social status
Affection, group affiliation and personal acceptance
Order, protection, shelter, and family stability
Food, drink, sex, etc.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives
- According to Abraham Maslow, our motives are
organized in a hierarchy arranged from the
basic to the personal and advanced.
- If the lower needs are not met for the most part
then higher motves will not operate.
- It helps to explain such things as why starving
people are not particularly interested in the
political and economic situation of the
- This also helps us to understand why a person
would give up a prestigious career to try to save
a marriage with much-love spouse and children.
Introduced EQ, a term referring the emotional intelligence.
He was the one who brought together a decade of behavioral research into how the mind processes feelings.
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EQ)
Coined by Peter Salovey and John Mayer
Describe the qualities of the regulation of
emotion that enhances living.
2 Components of EQ:
– inner oriented ability of the person such as self-awareness, understanding and managing feelings.
– skills or ability to understand or relate to other people.
– allows us to exercise some self-control.
– most crucial ability according to Goleman.
– one of the hardest to control.
– usually arises out of a sense of
being trespassed against.
– one of the most visible emotional skills.
– innate skill and can be easily shaped or
acquired through socialization and imitation.
ex. empathy, graciousness, and ability to read
* Many people are able to be both intellectually and emotionally mature which lead them to a happy and successful life.
Anxiety and Worrying
– rehearsals for
know your strength
overcome fear, anxiety,
and negative thoughts
handle your stress
be consistent in thought and
practice prudence, freedom
have a big heart to listen to others
try to understand others
learn from their experiences
participate and resolve
direct your focus inward,
relate with GOD, the
listen to the voice within
always reflect and have
Principles of Emotion
1. Emotional needs express themselves
one way or another.
2. Anger is an expression of need.
3. Our feelings and needs are not wrong
4. Emotions are the gateway to vitality
and feeling alive.
5. We can address emotional issues
and still save our true face.
6. Immediate reactions to problem often
disguise deeper feelings.
4 Possible Responses to the Presence of
a. Running away
- removing ourselves from the situation
by avoiding others
b. Getting angry
c. Denying importance
d. Addressing the situtation
7. We must clarify individual needs
before solving problems with others.
8. We need to express positive feelings
communicate negative ones.
The key to communicating negative emotions is careful communication rather than direct expression.
- keeps us away from our deeper
- a general feeling of insecurity and fear associated with certain kind or situation either real or imaginary
- This can be depending on the number of
factors which develop into a very strong
feeling of fear
- is an inescapable part of everyday life
- often or always fearful or worried about
something : tending to worry in a way that
is not healthy or reasonable
1. Avoid situations which arouse undesirable
2. Develop the habit of passing over provoking
3. Get more information or knowledge about things which make you afraid, or which make you worry
4. Practice the policy of holding back or delaying the act of giving in to an undesirable emotional impulse
5. Acquire understanding and skill in meeting
life's situations and problems.
6. Study and practice the art of getting along
7. Form friendships and associate with groups
Emotions and Health
Our emotions have
consequences that affect our immunity or the ability to resist disease.
is associated with stress.
weakens the body's
strengthen the body's
Emotional control helps us: