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Transcript of Cooperative Learning
"Coming together, sharing together, working together, succeeding together"
What is Cooperative Learning?
Cooperative learning is a method of instruction used in education that involves students working together in groups to maximize learning.
The purpose of cooperative learning...
What does it mean to be a team?
When and how it came about...
ndividual and Group Accountability
to Face Interaction
Individual and Group
Face to Face
Teachers must arrange learning tasks so that the children can “sink or swim” together, this is their access to rewards for academic success, in which all members receive a reward or no member does. Additionally, tasks are structured so that students must depend upon each other for their personal, teammates’ and group’s success in completing the assigned tasks and mastering the targeted content and skills.
The purpose for students to be in cooperative learning groups is so that they can achieve higher academic success than as working individually. As a result, each student is held responsible and accountable for doing his or her own share of the work and for learning what has been targeted to be learned. For that reason, each student must be formally and individually tested to determine the extent to which he or she has mastered and retained the targeted content and abilities.
Group processing is defined as reflecting on a group session to describe what member actions were useful and not useful and to make decisions about what actions to continue to change. The purpose of group processing is to simplify and improve the effectiveness of the members in contributing to the mutual efforts to achieve the group’s goals.
To work together as a group, students need to engage in interactive abilities such as: leadership, trust-building, conflict-management, constructive criticism, encouragement, compromise, negotiation, and clarifying. Teachers may need to describe the expected social interaction behaviors and attitudes of students and to assign particular students specific roles to ensure that they
consciously work on these behaviors in
By using face-to-face promotive interaction, learning becomes active rather than inactive. Teams promote discussion of ideas and oral summarization. Peer assistance clarifies concepts for both helper and the student being helped. Cooperative teams assist students to help identify the value of individual differences and promote more elaborate thinking. Student’s area is arranged so they are positioned and postured to face each other for direct
eye to eye contact and face to face
1. Formal Cooperative Groups
Heterogeneous or homogeneous
Students working together for lengths of time ranging from one class period to several weeks to achieve goals and complete specific tasks and assignments.
Forms the basis for most routine uses of cooperative learning
Students learn and become comfortable applying the different techniques of working together cooperatively
Students stay together until the task is done
Structure facilitates 5 critical elements
Mostly used for completing projects or group presentations
2. Informal Cooperative Groups
Randomly selected or selected based on instructional needs
This structure is ad-hoc, meaning it is for one specific task
It can be seen as an “on-the-fly” aid in direct teaching
Useful in breaking up a lecture into shorter segments interspersed with group activity
Leads to less lecture time but increases the amount of material retained by students as well as their comfort working with each other
Encourages students to turn to their neighbor
3. Cooperative Base Groups
Long-term and stable groups that last for at least a year
Made up of individuals with different aptitudes and perspectives
Provide a context in which students can support each other in academics as well as other life aspects
Group members make sure everyone is completing their work
Members hold each other accountable for their contributions
Implementation can provide permanent support and caring that students need to make academic progress
3 Types of Cooperative Learning
Why Cooperative Learning Works?
Research shows that students who work in cooperative groups do better on tests
Effective cooperative learning groups stress group goals as well as individual learning of their members
Students in cooperative-learning sections are more willing to ask the instructor questions than those in traditionally taught sections
MOTIVATION AND RETENTION
Students who learn cooperatively are more active participants in the learning process and care more about the class and material
Students are more likely to make friends in class, and they like and trust other students more than students who are learning individually
Students have more self-esteem
Example of Cooperative Learning in the classroom
Two brains are better than one!
How to effectively form groups...
Advantages of Cooperative Learning
Promotes creative thinking, problem solving, peer acceptance, more engagement and encouragement
Requires members to consider and appreciate others' ideas
Increases retention of material and student's motivation
Students learn from their peers and are faced with a diversity of ideas
Helps build social, leadership, and communication skills
Has positive effects on achievement and self-esteem.
Students tend to take responsibility for their own learning.
Creates active instead of passive learners.
"Research shows that 0rganizing students in cooperative learning groups can lead to a gain as high as 28 percentiles in measured student achievement" (Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock 2001).
Cooperative Learning Techniques
Disadvantages of Cooperative Learning
Students being off task and socializing rather than working
Members not contributing or dominating members
Competition between group members
Conflict between students
Members forced to pull more weight than others
Which technique would you be more prone to use in your future classroom and why?
Would you rather implement formal, informal, or cooperative base groups in your classroom?
What do you feel is the most important when creating students' groups?
Biehler. , & Snowman, Retrieved from http://college.cengage.com/education/pbl/tc/coop.html 1997
Donohue, Retrieved from http://www.nae.edu/File.aspx?id=14357 2010
Teed, R., McDaris, J., & Roseth, C. (n.d.). Types of cooperative learning groups. Retrieved from http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/cooperative/group-types.html
Smith. , Johnson, , & Johnson (1992). Retrieved from http://www.andrews.edu~freed/oldpages/pdfs/c8-types.pdf
Coffey, H. (n.d.). Cooperative learning. Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4653
3 Step Interview
Numbered Heads Together
Send a Problem
This is a 4 step strategy that incorporates wait time and aspects of cooperative learning.
Step 1. Students learn to
while a question is presented.
Step 2. Students
(without raising hands) of a response.
Step 3. Students
with a neighbor to discuss responses,
Step 4. Students
their responses with the whole class.
Time limits and traditions cues help discussion move smoothly. Students are able to rehearse responses mentally and verbally and all students have an opportunity to talk. Both
students and teachers have increased opportunities to
think and become involved in group discussion.
3 Step Interview
This is a structured group activity with students interviewing each other and sometimes can be used as an icebreaker or used in team building.
Step 1. One student interviews another about a presented topic for a designated amount of time.
Step 2. When time is up, students switch roles as interviewer and interviewee.
Step 3. The pairs then join to form groups of at least 4 students. Students take turns introducing their paired partners and share what their paired partners had to say. At the end of the exercise, all four students have had their position or viewpoints on an issue heard, digested, and described by their peers.
This technique provides students with the opportunity to develop expertise in one of many components of a problem by first participating in a group solely focused on a single component. Each member of the group is responsible for learning a specific part of a topic. After meeting with members of other groups, who are the “expert” in the same part, the “experts” return to their own groups and present their findings.
Team members then are quizzed on all topics.
Numbered Heads Together
This technique is comes in handy when reviewing objective material in a fun manner. Each student in each team are numbered accordingly (i.e. if a team has 4 students, they are numbered 1,2,3,4). Students “put their heads together” and educate each other on the material to be mastered. Teachers
ask a question and call out a number.
Only the students with that number are eligible to answer and earn points for
their team, building both individual accountability and positive
This technique can be used for brain storming, reviewing, or practicing a skill while also serving as a team builder. It takes place in 3 simple steps.
Step 1. Student’s are in teams of 3 or more with one piece of paper and one pencil. The teacher asks a question that has multiple answers to it.
Step 2. The first student in each group writes one response on a paper and then passes the paper clockwise to the next student so that student can write another answer to the question. This continues until everyone in the group has written an answer.
Step 3. When the time is called, the teams
with the greatest number of correct
responses gain some type of
Send a Problem
This technique can be used in problem solving. Each student writes a review problem on a flash card. Teams reach a consensus on answers and write them on the backs of the cards. Each group’s stack of questions passes to another group, which attempts to answer them and checks to see if they agree with the sending group. If they don’t, they write their answer as an alternative. Stacks of cards can be sent to a third or fourth group. Finally, the stacks are returned to the senders, who discuss the alternative answers.
Know the students, their needs, and academic abilities.
Plan to ensure that cooperative learning is successful and design meaningful tasks.
Explain the activity or project
Establish a way for students to assign roles within their groups..
Ensure that the 5 basic elements are implemented.
Be clear with objectives and expectations of all group members and the assignment.
Act a coach or facilitator by observing group work, providing feedback, and answering questions.
Monitor groups to ensure that everyone is participating and are on task.
Assess the group's progress.
So what is the teacher's role?
"What children can do together today, they can do alone tomorrow."