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Analysis of Art: BANKSY
Transcript of Analysis of Art: BANKSY
Street art as Social Criticism & Political Protest
Who is Banksy?
Adams, J. (2002). Art in social movements: Shantytown women’s protest in Pinochet’s Chile.
, 17 (1), 21-56. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/stable/685086
Antonakis, J. (2012). Transformational and charismatic leadership. In J. Antonakis & D. V. Day (Eds.),
The Nature of Leadership - 2nd ed
. (pg. 256 – 288). Washington DC.: SAGE Publications. Retrieved from: https://uoit.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-435214-dt-content-rid-1571387_1/courses/20130942368.201309/week_4_Antonakis_Transformational_and_Charismatic_Leadership_in_the_nature_of_leadership2.pdf
Avolio, B.J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership.
The Leadership Quarterly
16, 315–338. Retrieved from: https://uoit.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-446826-dt-content-rid-1724282_1/courses/20130942368.201309/week_9_avolio_Authentic%20Leadership%20Development.pdf
Campbell, F. (2008). Good graffiti, bad graffiti? A new approach to an old problem.
ENCAMS Research Report,
1-27. Retrieved from: http://www2.keepbritaintidy.org/ImgLibrary/graffiti_report_647.pdf
Fairholm, G. W., & Fairholm M. R. (2009). Understanding leadership perspectives: Theoretical and practical approaches. New York: Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/book/10.1007/978-0-387-84902-7/page/1
Ferrell, J. (1995). Urban graffiti: Crime, control, and resistance.
Youth & Society
. 27 (1), 73-92. Retrieved from: http://yas.sagepub.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/content/27/1/73.full.pdf+html
Rose, R. (2006, December 1). The star without a face.
. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/docview/228992779
Teune, S. (2005). Art and the re-invention of political protest. Paper presented at the 3rd ECPR Conference, Budapest (1-18). Retrieved from: http://protestkuriosa.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/teune_re-invention-of-protest.pdf
Thorncroft, A. (2008, February 2). Banksy moves streets ahead.
. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/docview/229037886
"According to Tristan Manco, in the book Stencil Graffiti, Banksy 'was born in 1974 and raised in Bristol, England. The son of a photocopier engineer, he trained as a butcher but became involved in graffiti during the great Bristol aerosol boom of the late 1980s'."
"Banksy began his career as a graffiti artist in the early 1990s, in Bristol's graffiti gang DryBreadZ Crew. Although his early work was largely freehand, Banksy used stencils on occasion. In the late '90s, he began using stencils predominantly. His work became more widely recognized around Bristol and in London, as his signature style developed."
"Banksy's identity remains unknown, despite intense speculation. The two names most often suggested are Robert Banks and Robin Gunningham. Pictures that surfaced of a man who was supposedly Banksy pointed toward Gunningham, an artist who was born in Bristol in 1973. Gunningham moved to London around 2000, a timeline that correlates with the progression of Banksy's artwork."
Banksy's identity revealed???
artwork in Kreuzberg, Berlin
Some examples from artists worldwide...
Ways art is useful in political action
Street art as
"[T]he notion of criticism can be extended to other forms of action or ways to produce meaning which do not appeal to rationality."
"Therefore, ...dissident symbols and behaviour which challenge the established order [are considered] a form of criticism."
"Art has particularly attracted attention of movement scholars in many cases where the use of arguments is restricted, for instance because of limits to freedom of speech."
Two kinds of impacts art can have on social movements:
"an illustration of a movement’s claims"
"a conceptual basis for the reorientation of collective action"
Art and the Re-Invention of Political Protest
Art in Social Movements: Shantytown Women’s Protest in Pinochet’s Chile
"First... social movements use the medium of artistic expression for communicating with the larger society."
"Second, art can help mobilize protest... by raising consciousness in potential recruits and the public."
"Third... it keeps people active in and committed to a movement once they have already joined... collective artmaking helps [people] develop bonds with other movement members."
"Fourth, art and music are important in generating resources, both ﬁnancial resources and outside support for movements."
"Fifth, a movement’s [art] prolongs a movement’s impact after the movement is over by diffusing into the broader culture and changing popular mores and tastes."
"Finally, art can stir up emotions that are useful to movements in several of the above ways."
"Art... can be the locus of an oppositional voice [against authoritarian regimes]."
"The writing of hip hop graffiti disrupts [the] orderly latticework of authority, reclaims public space for at least some of those systematically excluded from it, and thus resists the confinement of kids and others within structures of social and spatial control."
"[A]n alternative system of public communication [is created] for kids who otherwise have little access to avenues of urban information."
“[W]riters also construct alternative systems of status and identity. Both for those kids increasingly shut out of traditional channels of achievement and for those who, through ethnicity or education, retain some modicum of choice, graffiti writing provides a powerful alternative process for shaping personal identity and gaining social status.”
Urban Graffiti: Crime, Control, and Resistance
(pg. 79, 83-84)
quotes and diagram from:
Good Graffiti, Bad Graffiti?
A New Approach to an Old Problem
A study conducted in Britain in 2007 had the following findings:
"Participants’ responses revealed that they saw different types of graffiti as sitting on a spectrum ranging from low quality and less acceptable at one end to high quality and more acceptable at the other end."
"The most acceptable forms of graffiti were those pieces of art created by figures such as
"At its most extreme, ‘graffiti art’ is the realm of renowned figures
who often have a strong message to communicate. The motivation for this type of graffiti was perceived to be positive and constructive, although the notoriety of the figures involved can also
legitimise other forms."
"Better Out Than In"
Banksy's recent (October 2013) residency in NYC:
"Banksy-Altered Painting Brings $615,000 at Auction"
"Banksy sells original artwork for $60 in NYC"
"4 Great Leadership Lessons from the Arts"
1) Lead a Project from Start to Finish
2) Manage Dynamic People Effectively
3) Ensure Total Accountability
4) Implement Big Picture Thinking
Banksy has achieved recognition in the art community while maintaining his street credibility... but why is he a
Banksy exhibits some of the characteristics of transformational leadership, including visionary behaviour, risk taking, and intellectual stimulation.
Because the public receives very little in the way of spoken and written word from Banksy directly, his messages are conveyed primarily through his work. When analyzed, his communication is congruent with Charismatic leadership...
Some criticize Banksy for participating in self-promotion through his media-friendly exhibits. While it is true that some followers are attracted to him simply because of the mystery and celebrity status, potentially detracting from the intended effects of his art, this fame also brings more attention to his cause.
The messages in Banksy's art encourage us all take responsibility and be 'stewards' in caring for the Earth and each other.
"Values leadership asks leaders to formulate and then teach certain principles so followers can lead themselves." (pg. 87)
Similar to the claim made earlier about Charismatic leadership, Values leadership theory also points to the benefits of fame:
"High status... is not irrelevant to leadership. There are positions that carry with them symbolic values and traditions that enhance the possibilities of leadership." (pg. 84)
"Authentic leaders are originals, not copies." (pg. 321)
"Authentic leaders... know where they stand on important issues, values and beliefs. With that base, they stay their course and convey to others, oftentimes through actions, not just words, what they represent in terms of principles, values and ethics." (pg. 329-330)
Through his work, he tries to "raise the consciousness of followers for what is important, especially with regard to moral and ethical implications, and make them transcend their self-interest for that of the greater good." (pg. 263)
Intellectual stimulation: Banksy "appeals to followers' intellects by creating 'problem awareness...'" (pg. 266)
"Gifts attributed to the leader, such as extraordinary competence, [lead followers to] believe that the leader will bring about social change." (pg. 262)
It is unclear what the long-term effects of his work will be, but hopefully this type of art will assist in influencing public opinion on important issues.
Transformational and Charismatic Leadership
Understanding Leadership Perspectives: Theoretical and Practical Approaches - Chapter 5
Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership
His works communicate "in appropriate (eg., emotionally charged) ways so that they can package their message to be easily understood." (pg 276)
His work "use[s] positive and negative emotions and various nonverbal strategies... make[s] use of contrasts." (pg. 276)
Banksy "communicate[s] symbolically, use[s] imagery, and [is] persuasive in communicating a vision that promotes a better future." (pg. 265)
"Charismatic leaders must use some kinds of communication and image-building strategies to seem powerful and confident," (pg. 276) thus increasing their reach.
"Followers idealize these leaders, who are role models and who provide them with a vision and purpose, seem powerful and confident, and consider the moral and ethical implications of their decisions." (pg. 265)
Through his work, he tries to "[create] and [maintain] a culture conducive to accomplishment of personal and group goals." (pg. 86)
This culture includes certain key "values... and ideals about what group action should entail: respect for life, liberty or freedom of choice, justice, unity, happiness." (pg. 86)
"This type of leadership is empowering... It seeks to change people's lives for the better." (pg. 87)
"[Values] leaders use their beliefs and values to inspire others to behave and grow in certain ways." (pg. 83)
Finally, some of Banksy's art...
Although Banksy wants his work to garner attention, he shies away from the spotlight personally. This is very atypical of celebrities, but in-line with authentic leadership. He is intentionally refusing to "comply with perceived demands arising from public roles." (pg. 320)
"A leader can be seen as visionary for her ability to articulate a highly desirable future state, which followers identify with and commit to over time." (pg. 328)
"[A]uthentic leaders are motivated by personal convictions rather than to attain status, honors, or other personal benefits." (pg. 321)
Banksy's work promotes "self-transcendent values (eg., universal values, such as social justice, equality and broadmindedness...)." (pg. 318)
In the case of Banksy, our limited knowledge means that we must judge his motives through the interpretation of his work and his known actions: such as his decision to avoid personal celebrity status and tendency to downplay the monetary value of his art (as witnessed by the sale in NYC).
"The leader may not actively set out to transform the follower into a leader, but may do so simply by being role model for followers." (pg 327)
If the messages in the artwork are understood and internalized, they can effectively "heighten the self-awareness and shape the self-regulatory processes of the followers... [helping] followers develop greater clarity about their values, identity, and emotions... mov[ing them] towards authentic behavior." (pg. 326)
"They... self-regulate their behavior to achieve goals that are, in part, derived from and congruent with those of the leader." pg.327)
This is the primary goal: to make the public aware of important issues in our world and influence them to employ their values and take action to change or prevent these situations.
Banksy's followers fall into two categories: fellow artists and the general public.
In the case of other artists, he has not only been a role model to them, showing how art can have a greater meaning and that money should not be the primary objective, but has also blazed a trail for others to follow.
For the public, Banksy has helped to alter perceptions of this medium, making what was once seen strictly as unwanted graffiti now valued and welcomed into communities as art. His work shows clear ties to intellectual stimulation and emphasis of key values, and this is done intentionally to enlighten and empower the audience. The art uses tools such as irony to communicate in a very emotional way, and attracts a lot of attention, increasing overall awareness of the issues being examined.
This type of art serves a number of purposes in social criticism and protest, and can also provide the disenfranchised with an opportunity to build identity.
“Some people represent authority without ever possessing any of their own.”
“Sometimes I feel so sick at the state of the world I can't even finish my second apple pie.”
“The thing I hate the most about advertising is that it attracts all the bright, creative and ambitious young people, leaving us mainly with the slow and self-obsessed to become our artists. Modern art is a disaster area. Never in the field of human history has so much been used by so many to say so little.”
“I like to think I have the guts to stand up anonymously in a western democracy and call for things no-one else believes in - like peace and justice and freedom.”
“There's nothing more dangerous than someone who wants to make the world a better place.”
“Graffiti is one of the few tools you have if you have almost nothing. And even if you don't come up with a picture to cure world poverty you can make someone smile while they're having a piss.”
"He Is the quickest growing artist anyone has ever seen of all time."
"Where Bansky led, other artists followed."
Banksy moves streets ahead
The star without a face
"Instead of making some obvious political statement, he does it with poetry and energy and humour."
banksyfilm (2010, April 5).
Banksy's Exit Through The Gift Shop
. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0b90YppquE
inkw311 (2006, April 4).
. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=8e0IJSOq0xg
The Young Turks (2013, October 18).
Banksy In New York-- Is He A Threat To Power?
Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZE6da1nGlg
The Biography Channel website
. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.biography.com/people/banksy-20883111.
Banksy quotes (n.d.).
. Retrieved November 25, 2013, from http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/28811.Banksy
Banksy's Bristol. (2008). The Bristol graffiti artist with the international reputation.
. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/bristol/content/articles/2008/04/04/banksy_feature.shtml
Daum, K. (2013, June 3). 4 Great Leadership Lessons from the Arts.
. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.inc.com/kevin-daum/4-great-leadership-lessons-from-the-arts.html
(All other images cited throughout presentation)
anti-war poster, 1968
The Berlin Wall
Protesting an oil pipeline, Canada
Protest Mural, Chile