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Copy of solar system

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Devon Lukas

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of solar system


Io, Jupiter's volcanically active moon
The largest of Jupiter's moons, and the largest moon in the solar system
The Moon
Titan, Saturn's largest moon
Asteroid belt
Surface Temperature -5,500 C
Our Solar System
Just a snipit of the Universe...
Devon Lukas
The Sun:
-It is just one star of billions in the milky way
-It's part of the youngest generation of stars
-Center of our solar system
-Made mostly of hydrogen and helium
-All most all the rest is oxygen, carbon, neon, nitrogen,
magnesium, iron, and silicon
Some interesting facts about the Sun:
- 99.8% of the solar systems whole mass is all the
-Temperatures range from 10,000 degrees F (visible
part) to over 27 million degrees F (in the core)
-For every million atoms of hydrogen in the sun,
there is only around 100,000 of every other element combined
-The photosphere is the lowest layer of the suns
atmosphere and is what gives off the light we see
No matter what, life on earth that we know today will end in 5billion years...
Picture of sun: from original
Info from: http://www.space.com/58-the-sun-formation-facts-and-characteristics.html
Photo probably taken by: NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory
A newly released photo of the Cunningham crater from NASA's Messenger probe (photo 7 of 30)
-The closest planet to the Sun, was discovered about
5,000 years ago
-Surface temperature of 840 F to -275 F, the biggest
range in the solar system, because it does not have an atmosphere
-Smallest planet in solar system, a little bigger than
Earth's moon
Some things you might not know about Mercury:
1) Even though it is the so close to the Sun, water ice
from comets or Mercury's interior might exist in the north and south poles in shadowed, deep, and cold craters
2) Mercury is actually the second densest planet in
the solar system (after earth) because of its large metallic core that takes up 75% of its diameter
Photo of mercury: from original
Technology that might have taken this photo: NASA's Messenger/NASA's Mariner 10 (shown below, from http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ )
Info from: http://www.space.com/36-mercury-the-suns-closest-planetary-neighbor.html
3) Mercury shrank about 2 km as it cooled over
billions of years after it was born, making the surface crumple
4) Mercury has a magnetic field (this usually requires
quick rotation and a molten core both of which were thought non existent on Mercury, but it was discovered that its core might actually be molten, which could explain this magnetic field)
Mercury (continued):
-Rotates around it's axis once every 59 earth days
-Revolves around sun once every 88 Earth days,
fastest of all planets, traveling at almost 112,000mph
-Has 0 moons
-Is about 58 million km from the sun
-Is .39AU from sun
-Will stay as it is for 5 billion more years until it turns
to a Red Giant
-It was born 4.6 billion years ago from the solar
nebula, when it collapsed on itself, formed a disk, and material was pulled to the center to form the sun, scientists believe
-Second planet from the sun
-Very bright and visible from earth
-Very similar to earth in size, mass, density,
composition, and gravity
-Hottest planet in the solar system
-Dense atmosphere of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and
sulfuric acid traps heat with the greenhouse effect
-Temperature is 870 F
-Many deformations in the surface from the heat
Venus (continued):
-Rotates around axis once every 243 earth days,
which is the slowest of the major planets
-No magnetic field because it is so slow
-Revolves around sun once every 225 Earth days, so
the day is longer than the year
-Has 0 moons
-Is about 108 million km from the sun, .72 AU
Some interesting facts about Venus:
-There is lightening there
-It rotates the opposite way on its axis, so the Sun
would rise in the west and set in the east
-Though it takes 243 earth days for Venus to rotate
on its axis, there is only 117 Earth days between sunrises
Picture of Venus: from original
Picture might have been taken by: NASA's Magellan
Info from:
A new theory has come out that earth's moon might have actually been a "present" from venus!! http://www.space.com/22966-earths-moon-from-venus.html
-Third from the sun
-Only known planet to have free oxygen in its
atmosphere, liquid water oceans on the surface, and life
-Largest of the rocky planets
-71% of surface is water
-Temperature range is -127F to 136F
Earth (continued):
-Has one moon
-About 150 million km from the sun, 1AU
-Rotates once every 24 hours on axis
-Revolves once every 365 days around the sun
Some interesting facts about Earth:
- The tilt of Earth's axis makes the southern and
northern hemispheres tilted away from the Sun at different times in the year creating the seasons
-The Earth isn't a perfect sphere because of gravity, a
centrifugal force pushing outwards, and the axis; so it is bulged around the equator
Earth's interesting facts (continued):
-The magnetic poles are creeping north slowly over
thousands of years so that eventually they will be flip flopped
-The Earth may have had a second moon, but it
clashed into the other one
Photo of Earth: from original
Technology that might have been used to take photo: VIIRS instrument on NASA's Suomi NPP ( from http://www.livescience.com/20369-earth-pictures-space.html )
Info from: http://www.livescience.com/20369-earth-pictures-space.html
An Earth-like planet has been found, but with a very different form of water than we have ever seen: http://www.space.com/23028-super-earth-water-atmosphere-alien-planet.html
The evolution of our moon:
Photo: from original
Might have been taken by: astronauts on International Space Station
Phobos and Deimos:
Pictures from:
Might have been taken by: Viking 1 and 2, Phobos 2
Info from: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/mars/moons.shtml
Phobos and Deimos:
-Discovered by Asaph Hall, the astronomer
-Phobos is 22.2 km wide, Deimos is 12.6 km
-Both have lots of craters
-Made of iron and rock
-Probably were former asteroids that were pulled in
by Mars' gravity
-Have no atmosphers
-4th planet from the sun
-The loose dust/rock on the surface is full of iron,
making it rust color
-Thin atmosphere
-Very cold, around -80 F but can get to 70 F at
Mars (continued):
-Rotates around axis once every 1.03 earth days, or
24.6 hours, almost the same as Earth
-Revolves around sun every 687 Earth days
-Has two moons; Phobos and Deimos
-Is 228 million km from sun, 1.524 AU
Some interesting facts about Mars:
-Mars has the highest mountain/volcano known in
the solar system, Olympus Mons 27 km high (three times Mount Everest) and the deepest/longest valley, Valles Marineris 10 km deep and about 4,000 km long
-There are many more valleys found which suggest
that liquid water was there at one time, and water may still be in underground cracks. Water also might have created the flat planes across Mars, and is in the ice caps along with other things
Interesting facts about Mars continued:
-Has the largest dust storms in the solar system, they
can cover the whole planet and last for months
-Has the most elongated oval shaped orbit around
the sun in the solar system, creating extreme seasons
Photo of Mars: from original
Might have been taken by: Viking 1 and 2
Info from:
Life might have been possible from water on Mars:

Phobos and Deimos, Mars' moons
The Asteroid Belt:
-Almost 2 million little bodies of rock and metal are
more than 1 km wide and many million more that are smaller all orbit between Mars and Jupiter
-Some stray sometimes and could affect our planet
-Asteroids are small parts of rock and metal that were
probably formed before the planets in the early solar system
Interesting facts about the Asteroid Belt:
-The Asteroid Belt even contains dwarf planets like
Ceres which is 950 km wide and is the largest body in the Asteroid Belt
-Gaps occur in the Asteroid belt from Jupiter's gravity
called Kirkwood gaps, Jupiter also keeps them away from the Sun and the inner planets
-An asteroid, 243 Ida, actually has its own moon
which is another asteroid; Dactyl

Photo's of asteroids from: http://evula.org/solarsystem/asteroidbelt.html
Might have been taken by: NASA's Dawn Mission
Info from: http://www.space.com/15948-asteroid-belt-space-rocks-infographic.html
-Largest planet in solar system
-5th from the sun
-Gas giant
-Atmosphere made mostly of hydrogen and helium
-Has the fastest rotation time, a little less than 10
Earth hours, makng it wider at the equator than the poles
-Revolves once around Sun every 11.86 Earth years
-778 million km from sun, 5.203 AU
-Has at least 63 moons, but 4 large, main ones, they
Interesting facts about Jupiter:
-If Jupiter was 80 times more massive, it would
probably be a star
-Has faint dark rings of rock and dust fragments that
do not reflect much sunlight, they were discovered in 1980
-Jupiter's axis is only tilted 3 degrees, which isn't
enough for seasons
Great Red Spot:
-Hurricane-like storm
-Three times the width of Earth at its widest part
-Spins counter clockwise toward center at 360 km per
-Reddish brownish
-Every now and then the spot seems to fade
Photo's of Jupiter and its moons: from original
Might have been taken by: Voyager 1 and 2
Info from: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/jupiter/
-6th from the Sun
-2nd largest planet
-Most extraordinary rings
-Gas giant mostly of hydrogen and helium
-Average temperature on cloud tops is -290 F
-10 and a half Earth hours in a day
-29.46 Earth years in a year
-Around 1.5 billion km from Sun, 9.539 AU
-Dozens of moons like...
Pan, Saturn's smallest (known) moon...
And MANY more in between!
Picture of Saturn and Titan: from original
May have been taken by: Voyager 1 and 2
Photo of Pan from: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/
May have been taken by: Voyager 1 and 2
Info from: http://www.space.com/48-saturn-the-solar-systems-major-ring-bearer.html
Voyager 2:
Interesting facts about Saturn:
-Astronomers spotted a huge hexagon cloud
structure around north pole which has been known about for decades, but they did not think it would stay for that long
-Saturn has rings over 1 million km in diameter
(width), but are very thin (1 km thick), and they are made from ice chunks and rocks from a fingernail size all the way to the size of a car
-It's gravitational pull might have thrown Neptune
and Uranus outward and threw debris toward the inner planets during the early solar system
A very cool video put together of riveting photo's take of Saturn's rings and other things in outer space not using any CGI: http://www.space.com/21834-fly-through-space-photos-in-saturn-s-rings-video.html
-7th from sun
-Gas giant
-Blue-green color
-Atmosphere made mainly of methane and ammonia
-Temperature average is -350 F
-A day on Uranus takes 17.9 Earth hours, while a year
takes 84 Earth years
-Is a little less than 3 billion km away from the Sun,
19.18 AU
-Has 27 known moons, like...
Oberon; one of the two largest and first discovered moons
Titania; The second of Uranus' largest and first discovered moons
Ariel; discovered not long after Oberon and Titania, along with...
Umbriel; and many more moons were later found by Voyager 2
Some interesting facts about Uranus:
-Uranus was originally thought to be a star because
of its dimness and slow orbit, but was discovered by accident when stars were being surveyed and it seemed different from the rest
-It is tilted so far on its side (97.77 degrees) that the
top of the planet (the axis) is pretty much facing the Sun, so the rings around it look like they are orbiting vertically, but the whole planet is actually tilted, maybe from a collision earlier in its lifetime
Interesting facts continued:
-The tilt causes extreme seasons about 20 Earth years long
-Due to Uranus' odd tilt, the magnetic field is also tilted, so the field at the northern hemisphere is 10 times stronger than the southern hemisphere
Photo's of Uranus and Oberon: from original
All photos (four moons and Uranus) probably taken by: Voyager 2
Photo's of Titania, Ariel, and Umbriel:
Info from:

-8th from Sun
-Bright blue cloud cover
-Has thick slushy mix of water, ammonia, and ice
under the atmosphere
-Rocky core
-Cannot be seen by naked eye
-Has rings, but they're unstable and will likely
Neptune (continued):
-One day is 19.1 Earth hours
-A year is 165 Earth years, and it completed its first
orbit sense being discovered in 2011
-Is around 4.5 billion km from the Sun, 30.06 AU
-Has 13 known moons, like...
Triton; which orbits in opposite direction to Neptune's rotation, and actually has seasons
Photo of Neptune: from original
Photo's of 3 moons:
All photo's taken by: Voyager 2
Info from:
The Kuiper Belt
The Kuiper Belt:
-Is made up of trillions of slow moving icy bodies that
orbit in a region outside of Neptune
-Thousands are more than 100 km in diameter
-Located from 30 to more than 50 AU's from the Sun
-How it was formed: It is in a region where the planet
making process was stopped before any large objects could form, and it is just remains of the early accretion disk around 4.5 billion years ago
Some interesting facts about the Kuiper Belt:
-Pluto and it's moon, Charon, might be very large
parts of the Kuiper Belt
-Kuiper Belt was actually predicted by Gerard Kuiper
in 1951
Photo of Kuiper belt from: http://blog.buko.net/
Probably taken by: Maybe NASA's space based telescope: Spitzer
Info from: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/solarsystem/kuiper.shtml

Halley's Comet photo from: http://www.space.com/11552-photos-halleys-comet-images-astronomy.html
Taken by: A 24-inch reflective telescope
Info from: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/glossary/indexh.shtml#Halleyscomet
Halley's Comet
Halley's Comet:
-Periodic comet
-Made of frozen gas and dust
-Orbits around Sun
-Most famous comet
How it may have formed:
-Might have formed around other stars, then pulled
into Sun's orbit when the stars were closer together
Interesting facts about Halley's Comet:
-It returns to area around Earth every 75 years, and it
is supposed to return in 2061
-Halley's comet was actually first observed in 239 b.c.
by chinese astronomers!
-Became a dwarf planet in 2006
-Is estimated to be about 2/3 the size of Earth's
-Is probably rocky and icy
-Average temperature is -375 F
Interesting facts about Pluto:
-Little is actually known about Pluto because it is so
far away
-It's orbit can take it close enough to the Sun that a
bit of ice can actually thaw
-Pluto actually has a moon, Charon, and it is almost
half Pluto's size
Photo of Pluto from: http://www.planetsforkids.org/
Probably taken by: NASA's Hubble space telescope
Info from: http://www.space.com/43-pluto-the-ninth-planet-that-was-a-dwarf.html
Hubble space telescope:
Thank you!!!
The Spitzer:
Voyager 1:
NASA's Dawn Mission:
Viking 1
Viking 2
Phobos 2
International Space Station
VIIRS Instrument
NASA's Magellan
NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory:
One explanation of how the discovery of Uranus connected to Neptune's discovery
Full transcript