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History Culminating Activity
Transcript of History Culminating Activity
Robert Borden was born in 1854, in Grand Pre, Nova Scotia. He was the PM of Canada from 1911-1920 around the time of the great war. He help Canada stand on its own nation and break away from Britain. He provided half a million soldiers to the war effort.. Borden had made a huge commitment towards the Military Service Act and the Conscription Crisis of 1917, which split the country. Also, Borden created a successful economy, which led to the gaining of rights to women and the introduction of conscription. He wanted to create a single Canadian army rather than have soldiers sent away to fight in different places with different British divisions. Even tho the Canadian troops were still under the British command, the soldiers proved that they were well trained and prepared to fight in their own divisions. They proved to be amongst the best in the world.
Mary Pickford was a motion picture actress, co-founder of the film studio called, United Artistes and one of the original founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. She was a significant figure in the development of film making and acting. Mary was said to be one of the silent films most important performer and producer. She is was helped shaped the Hollywood industry.
WW1 delayed the suffrage movement, but it allowed the women the right to vote. Thousands of women from Newfoundland made huge contributions to the war effort. Suffragists argued that female voters would support better health-care and education. A municipal law was passed in 1925 that allowed only women that were at least 25 years old and women who owned property within the city, could vote.
Fannie McNeil was a leader in the Newfoundland suffragist movement. She was one of the first women to run for political office
Art & Culture
Canadian art began just after WW1 but it flourished in the twenties. A group called the Group of Seven was a group of Canadian artists. Their main goal was to capture the essence of the Canadian spirit through their abstracted landscapes. Most of their art work was of the Canadian Shield are of Northern Ontario. They wanted to move away from European styles and express a distinctly Canadian vision.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge
The objective was to take control of Vimy Ridge from the Germans. The main fighters were the four divisions of the Canadian Corps and three divisions of the German forces. It was the first time all four Canadian divisions fought together. The Canadian Corps took over most of the ridge, thanks to an attack tactic called "Creeping Barrage", in the first day. This was the first battle that was successful in taking over the ridge. No other country could defeat the Germans and take over the high grounds. Canada was the first to take Vimy Ridge. The Canadians were so successful because the spent months preparing as well as practiced how to use enemy rifles. Sir Arthur Currie lead the battle. He wanted to be one step ahead of the enemy. Currie decided to build a replica of Vimy Ridge so that his soldiers could practice their plan of attack. On the day of battle, the four divisions split up and attack the Germans from all different sides of the ridge. The win at Vimy Ridge was a turning point in the war for Canada as a nation. The Canadian Corps reputation for the battle was the "most effective fighting machine of the Western Front, and of Canada itself".
Maple Leaf Gardens is located in Toronto, Ontario. The historic arena opened on November 12, 1931. It was constructed as a professional ice hockey arena but since then it has been converted into a multi-purpose building. The Maple Leaf Garden is considered to be one of the "cathedrals" of ice hockey. It was home of the Toronto Maple Leafs NHL team from 1931-1999. Also a Benefit All-Star Game was held there in 1934 for the Leaf's forward player, Ace Bailey, who suffered a career-ending head injury. Boxing and wrestling was also a regular offering for many years at the Garden. It was one of the few places outside of the U.S. where Elvis Presley preformed.
The attack on Dieppe began in 1942. The objective was to take back the French port that was taken over by Germans. Allied troops didn't stand a chance against the German troops because the Germans marched through the beaches with machine gunfire and killed anyone in their path. 4,963 Canadian troops were sent to battle - 907 were killed, and many more were wounded. Over 19 hundred troops were captured.
The Battle of Dieppe was a huge failure. To this day it is a huge controversial military topic. Altho the battle was not successful, there was valuable lessons learned that were used to help defeat the Germans in later battles after 1942. The failure of Dieppe Raid helped with the successful win of the same beaches in the Battle of Normandy. It helped the allies regroup and fix where they went wrong so when they landed on the beaches a second time they were successful.
Hugette Plamondon was a just a secretary in a union office in Quebec. She was elected president of the Montreal Labour Council in 1955. Hugette became the first woman to lead a major Canadian Labour organization. A year later she was elected vice president of the newly formed Canadian Congress. She later was a vice president of the Federal NDP (New Democratic Party).
The Avro Arrow was an expensive but technically and aerodynamically advanced plane that was supposed to serve as the Royal Canadian Air Force`s primary interceptor in the 1960`s. When the Liberal government was defeated by the Conservatives in 1957, the fate of the plane was coming close. The Avro Arrow project was canceled because of financial problems and critics said it was unnecessary. The official cancellation of the Arrow was on February 29th 1959. Thousands of Canadians lost their job that day.
Elizabeth Catherine Bagshaw was one of Canada's first female doctor. She opened and was the medical director of the first birth control clinic in 1932. The clinic didn't become legal until 1969 and eventually received government grants. Dr. Bagshaw devoted her professional life to help women make better, informed choices. From 1932-1966, she spent ever Friday afternoon at the clinic, giving out birth control information and devices.
Bagshaw retired at the age of 95 which made her the oldest practicing physician in Canada. A documentary film was made about her life and was presented at her 99th birthday. Elizabeth died at 100 years old. Before her death she received many honors. She was one of the first seven women to receive the Governor Generals Award, "to recognize outstanding contributions to the quality of life of women in Canada". She was also a Member of the Order of Canada. Dr. Bagshaw devoted more than 30 years to the practice of medicine.
The statute of Westminster was a British law clarifying the powers of Canada's Parliament and granted full legal freedom. The road to independence started with the grant of a legislator and then eventually a Responsible Government. By 1931, Canada had become "autonomous communities... equal in status" to Britain. A provincial conference was held to answer questions such as, "Who would receive the power to alter Canada's constitution, if Britain didn't have anything to do with Canada?"
After the declaration that Canada was no longer under British power, it led straight to the Statute of Westminster which removed all remaining legal limits on independence except where Canadians chose to keep them. The Statute is of historical importance because it marks the effective legislative independence.
Viola Desmond was born and raised in Halifax, Nova Scotia. She trained as a teacher but joined her husband to work in a combined barber and hairdressing shop. She wanted to expand her business across the province, so she moved to New Glasgow in 1946. While she was there she had some car trouble and decided to go to the movies while her car was getting fixed. She bought her ticket, entered the theater and took a seat on the main floor. Being from out of town, Viola had no idea that the main floor was designated for white people only and that the balcony is where the African Canadians in town were supposed to sit. One of the staff members at the theater demanded that she move and go sit on the balcony, but she refused because she said she could see better from the main floor. The police were called immediately and Viola was dragged out which caused her to injure her hip.
She was charged and thrown into jail and was denied of her rights. She sat straight with her head held high, wearing her white gloves (a sign of class and sophistication back then). In the morning, even tho she did nothing wrong, Viola still paid the fine of $20. She was also charged with defrauding the Government of Nova Scotia of the difference in the tax between a ground floor and a balcony. While talking to her doctor about what happened as he was fixing her, she decided to fight the charges. The issues was because she was an African Canadian women, not about tax evasion. She took it to court and Viola Desmond's experience helped gain public opinion locally and internationally, as well as raise awareness about the reality of Canada's segregation.
The Canadian Pension Plan (CPP) was first in 1963, legislated in 1965 and put in effect in 1966. The CPP makes a retirement pension available to all Canadian citizens. Citizens over the age of 18 are required to put a percentage of their earnings to CPP which funds the plan. The CPP also covers things like disability, survivor, orphan and death benefits. Now people who are less fortunate have a better chance now because of this benefits plan.
David Suzuki was born in Vancouver and graduated from the University of Chicago. After completing his PhD in Zoology, he worked as a professor at the University of British Columbia from 1963-2001. After he retired he focused on the David Suzuki Foundation that focuses on oceans, sustainable fishing, climate change, clean energy, sustainability and Suzuki's Nature Challenge. He became a host of many TV shows such as a CBC series called Science Magazine, Nature of Things, and Nature of Things with David Suzuki. He has published 43 books and received 23 honorary degrees. He received many awards as well as being nominated as one of Canada's top 10 "Greatest Canadians". He is Canada's most well known environmentalist activist and his work and his work concerning the environment and climate change has been recognized internationally.
Inuit leaders and the Canadian federal government began a 20 year negotiating the creation of the Inuit territory in 1976. There was an essential moment for Inuit people when 80% of the North West Territory citizens voted in favor of creating a mainly Inuit eastern territory with their own government. The Canadian government signed the land claim agreement which officially created the government of Nunavut. This gave the Inuit people self rule and control over their own institutions.
Terry Fox found out that he had a malignant tumor in his right leg at only 19 years old, in 1977. Shortly after he found out about the cancer, he had his leg amputated, 15cm above the knee. He started training for his famous cross Canada marathon in 1979. The marathon raised money for cancer research and brought awareness to the Canadian population. The Marathon For Hope began on April 12th, 1980 in Newfoundland and ended September 1st, 1980just outside of Thunder Bay, Ontario. Terry had to end his marathon early when they discovered his cancer spread to his lungs. He ran 143 days and 5,373 kilometers (3,339 miles). Even tho Terry Fox had treatment for the cancer in his lungs, he passed away in British Columbia in June 1981.
Terry Fox was voted Canada's Greatest Hero by a national survey and has be honored numerous Canadian awards. Every year in Canada there is a Terry Fox Run which is one of the most popular, most attended event in the nation. Over 40 million dollars has been raised in Terry Fox's name for cancer research.
he Montreal Massacre happened in 1989 on December 16th, when a gunman entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Montreal. He carried a mini-14 rifle and a hunting knife. The gunman's name was Marc Lepine. He stared by going into a classroom and told all of the men to leave. Once all the males in the room were cleared out, he declared that he hated all women and feminists and started to shoot all 9 of the women in the class, killing 6 of them. He left the room and continued his shooting spree through the rest of the building. His main target was women. In total, he shot 28 people, killing 14 including himself.
Its questioned whether the tragedy was a representation of violence against women, a result of Lepine's personal abuse as a child, violence in the media, or just a random act of violence.
The Summit Series in 1972 is an 8 game series between the Soviet Union and Canadian national ice hockey teams. Canada won 4-1-3 games, however the series wasn't as easy as the Canadians thought. Canada lost a few games in the beginning which required the team to win all 3 of the last games. The last 3 games were on the Soviet Unions home ice which was a disadvantage to the Canadians. The final game was tied 5-5 with only 34 seconds left. Paul Henderson, Canadian forward, came on and scored the final goal. His goal was known worldwide as "the goal heard around the world". If the game finished as a tie, the Soviets would have won. It wouldn't have gone into overtime or a shoot out because the Soviets scored more goals during the series. The series was very rowdy and controversial at times because of questionable refereeing, penalty calls, fighting, and injuries. It also took place at the peek of the Cold War and had political importance because of the tension between Western and Eastern countries.
Winning was considered one of Canada's proudest national moments. It proved the belief that Canada had the best hockey players in the world. Also, Canada was recognized as having the top national teams.
Canadian inventor Donald Hings created a portable radio system which he called a "packset" but was later known as the "walkie talkie". His model called "Handie Talkie" was in military use by 1942. Military used hand held radios for many different purposes. They can communicate on a variety of bands and modulation schemes and include encryption capabilities.
Walkie Talkies were also used for marine and aviation communications. On smaller boats and air crafts especially a fixed radio would have been pointless and expensive. Often they would have switches on their radios that would provide quick access to emergency and information channels
In 1982, Canada won its first ever gold medal at the WJHC in Minnesota. The Canadians out scored their opponents 45-15 with a 6-0-1 record during regular season. It was the first attempt at putting a true, national, junior team together and the success started the path of future gold medals.
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Clarence "Big" Miller was one of the greatest jazz musicians of his time. When he was a teenager he studied the trombone in high school and began to develop his unique singing voice as a "Kansas City blues shouter." He made his debut in Toronto in 1962 and sang with the legendary Duke Ellington. Even tho he was a popular singer in the United States, Miller was discouraged by racial tensions there. He began touring other countries. He was stranded in Vancouver when his tour ran out of money. He finally settled in Edmonton in 1970, where he became a fixture in the music scene. Shortly after Miller became a Canadian citizen.
With a deep voice mixed gospel and jazz together, Miller went to jazz festivals, in children's concerts, with Edmonton Symphony Orchestra and with various jazz bands across Canada. The National Film Board made a documentary on Miller and he also acted in a few Canadian Films. Still preforming at the age of 69, "Big" Miller died of a heart attack in June 1992.
On march 12, 1980 at CFB Moose Jaw three great pilot trainees arrived to begin their training. Less than a year later on February 13th 1981 Leah Mosher, Nora Bottomley and Dee Brasseur become captain graduates. They were the first Canadian female pilots with their wings. The face of the Canadian Air Force pilot community was changed forever because of the three important females who succeed there dreams, and opened doors for others.
The 2010 Winter Olympics was a major international, multi-sport event from February 12th to the 28th, 2010. Vancouver Hosted the 2010 Winter Olympics. The 2010 Winter Games was the 3rd Olympics held by Canada. 15 winter sports events were included in the 2010 Winter Olympics. Canada had a total of 14 gold medals and broke the record for most gold medals won the Winter Games. Big moments for Canada was when the Canadians defeated the USA in men's hockey, Joannie Rochette's bronze medal in figure skating after her mother's unexpected death.
In 1995, 12 year old, Craig Kielburger read a newspaper story that changed his life. The newspaper story was about another 12-year-old boy in Iqbal Masih in Pakistan, was murdered for bringing the world's attention to the terrible conditions that children went through while working in the carpet-making industry. "I saw him as a hero for speaking out about child labor," Kielburger said, right there he realized, ''that a young person can make a difference." He went out to learn more about human rights, and went on a trip to South Asia where he was able see the personal horrors of child labor. He wrote a book called Free The Children about his experience. When he came back to Canada he was determined to find a way to help the children that he met, so he got a group of friends together and 12 year old Craig Kielburger founded Kids Can Free the Children. Free the Children has became the largest international network of children helping children.
On January 14, 2001, Joe Varnell and Kevin Boursassa, along with Anne and Elaine Vautour became the first same-sex couples to be marries in Toronto. Same-sex marriages were slowly but surely being legalized province by province. Individual court cases where provincial or territorial justices ruled existing bans on same-sex marriages unconstitutional. It wasn't until July 20, 2005 that same-sex marriages were legalized nation-wide. Canada is the first country and the 4th country in the world to legalize same-sex marriages.
After WW2 the record and phonograph industry was brought back to life because of renewed prosperity. Vinyl disks were introduced to replace breakable shellac records. New cutting techniques made it possible to fit more grooves onto a record. Since these improvements, buyers leaned more towards buying the small singles. Singles became the preferred record for jukeboxes. During the 1950s, teenagers were more drawn the the single records and were what influenced market for popular music. Top 40 radio came to be the primary means of promoting this music.In the 1950s, stereophonic techniques were introduced to add the effect of depth and direction to the sounds.