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on 15 August 2015

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Transcript of Titanic

The Titanic Grace Folk Building the Titanic There was a lot of competition for ocean liners such as the Titanic in the early 1900s. They began construction of the Titanic in 1909 and didn't finish until 1912. The RMS Titanic was intended to be luxurious and large, while the Cunard ships had previously been known for their speed. The irony of the competition between White Star Line and Cunard is that the two companies ended up merging in the 1930's because of the stock market crash in 1929. The RMS (Royal Mail Ship) Titanic was a British ocean liner that sank after it struck an iceberg on April 14, 1912. The Titanic was not the first, last, or even deadliest shipwreck, but it is the most memorable. Perhaps because it was called "unsinkable" The Passengers The People on the Titanic were divided into different classes; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and Crew First Class First Class passengers were those who were rich and important. People in first class had large fancy cabins and enjoyed elegant meals. First class passengers had access to things such as a sauna, a swimming pool, a gymnasium, restaurants, and the well-known grand staircase. Second Class Second class passengers were the middle class of the Titanic and consisted of people who gained success through common jobs such as teachers, miners or clerks. Third Class Third class passengers were poor people who often left Europe to look for a new start in America. These people may have sold everything or almost everything they had to board the ship. The Titanic was built in the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. The Ship Size of the Titanic Decks 882 feet 9 inches long 92 feet 6 inches wide 104 feet high 46,328 tons 52,310 tons displaced The Titanic carried 2,224 passengers, but there were only enough lifeboats for 1,178. Boat Deck; This is the deck where lifeboats were stored and there were Promenade areas. It also had the Grand staircase which is the first class entrance, gymnasium, and the second class entrance. A (Promenade) Deck; This deck ran the whole length of the superstructure. It had entrances to first class staterooms, the first class smoke room, a reading and writing room, and the first class lounge. It had 6 staterooms and some restaurants B (Bridge) Deck; This deck was the highest level of the hull and had a raised stern which served as a third class promenade area. C (Shelter) Deck; This deck had the majority of first class staterooms and the second class library. Also, it had third class public areas and part of the third class promenade area. D (Saloon) Deck; On this deck was the first class dining saloon, along with the second class dining saloon and open space for third class. This deck was the highest one reached by the "watertight" bulkheads. It was reached by eight out of fifteen. E (Upper) Deck; This deck provided accommodations for a variety of the three classes plus some members of crew. All of the bulkheads that didn't reach D deck reached this deck. F (Middle) Deck; This deck accommodated second and third classes and some departments of crew. It also had the pool and Turkish bath. G (Lower) Deck; This deck is where the mail room was and where food was stored. This deck was just above the waterline. Lower Orlop Deck; the lowest deck on the ship had engines rooms, propeller shafts, turbines, along with storage for coal and fresh water. Orlop Deck; Below the waterline, this deck had cargo space and boiler rooms. Lifeboats It is well know that there were not nearly enough lifeboats for all on board. In fact, there was only about enough for 1/2. There was enough capacity on lifeboats for 1,178 people. The reason that they did not carry enough lifeboats was because they felt the deck would look cluttered. Warnings Captain Smith himself said that he could not “imagine any condition which would cause a ship to founder. Modern ship building has gone beyond that.” Many ships were in the North Atlantic the night the Titanic sank. The Titanic received many ice warnings, some coming from ships who were stopped for the night due to surrounding icebergs. People think Captain Smith was trying to set a speed record because not only did they ignore the warnings, but they had gone faster. It was generally believed that icebergs posed no real danger to ships such as the Titanic. Collision At 11:40 pm, Frederick Fleet spotted the iceberg and notified the bridge of the iceberg right ahead. First Officer Murdoch ordered the engines to be reversed and for the ship to turn. It was believed that this ripped a gash approximately 300 feet in length, but then it was thought that it was only between 220-245 feet. On a more recent undersea expedition of the Titanic, they discovered that in the deeply buried hull was not one long tear, but rather 6 openings. People were told various stories, and some were told that they had thrown a propeller blade No matter what they were told, nobody believed they were in any real danger. It was a different story in the boiler rooms, when an icy jet of water came in. The "watertight" doors were controlled by a switch on the bridge. 5 out of 16 of the watertight compartments flooded. Why the "watertight" compartments weren't really watertight The "watertight" compartments weren't really watertight because they weren't sealed at the top, so water could flow from one compartment to the next. Distress Call Just 10 minutes after the Titanic struck, a distress call was handed in to be sent to nearby ships. Had the radio operator of the Californian, a nearby ship, been awake, the report would have gotten to them. Instead, the Carpathia, a Cunard ship, had to come. The Carpathia would take 4 hours to get there. Evacuation The workers on board the Titanic had told everyone to put on their life belts and come up to the Boat deck, yet not everyone listened. After all, they were on an “unsinkable” ship. It proved difficult to evacuate the ship in the dark while the ship was sinking. Some of these lifeboats were lowered with very few people, as little as twelve. They mainly followed the rule of women and children first, although third class had been left to fend for themselves, rendering them trapped in the lower decks of the ship as it went down. Many of the male passengers and crew members were left on the ship. Sinking The first five "watertight" compartments on the Titanic flooded, making it impossible to either stay afloat or finish its voyage Water flooded over the top of the bulkheads and into the next compartments. Most of the people in the water died within minutes from either hypothermia, cardiac arrest, or drowning. The majority died from hypothermia, because the water was 28 degrees Fahrenheit. The ship began to rise out of the water at an approximate 45 degree angle, which caused the first funnel to fall off. The weight of the stern put too much strain on the keel. This caused the ship to split between the third and fourth funnels. The keel was still attached. The stern was upright in the water with many people clinging to it. The last of it went down at 2:20 a.m. Everyone was either on a lifeboat, in the water, or on the ship which was also underwater. Rescue The Carpathia came to rescue the Titanic’s survivors and arrived about an hour and a half after the sinking. The Carpathia arrived in New York three days after she picked up Titanic survivors on April 18, 1912. The Titanic would have been rescued by the Californian had it responded to the distress calls and came to their assistance. On board the Californian, reports were made to the captain by others on the ship of strange lights that were distress flares from the Titanic. Discovery Dr. Robert Ballard had long been interested in finding the Titanic and he had made many trips out into the North Atlantic to search the bottom of the ocean for her remains. He had tried many different techniques to find this elusive ship. On September 1, 1985, the scientist on the ship noticed something was unusual. The sand on the seabed lay in irregular patterns and debris that was clearly man-made was scattered around. The scientist were amazed and kept searching to find a boiler, which had been one of the Titanic’s. A year later, they boarded the Atlantis 2 and the submersible Alvin and returned to the site. From the submersible, they had a remote activated robot called Jason Junior, or “JJ” On the ocean floor on July 13, 1986, the scientists in the submersible were suddenly facing the hull of Titanic. Since then, many artifacts have been recovered from this long lost ship. These items are on display in many museums and other places across the world. Today, the Titanic is at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. It is split into the bow and the stern with the debris field in between. Because of the Titanic The Titanic was a devastating catastrophe that will hopefully never be repeated. Because of it, however, many things have changed. Radio Act of 1912 Lifeboats It is a fact that the Titanic sank over 100 years ago, but there are still questions. ‘What if?’ will always be a question that follows the legend of the Titanic. And even though the Titanic sank over a century ago, it will always be remembered. Whether it was because of the fact that it was “unsinkable” or because it could have been so easily prevented remains a mystery. Did you know? Did you know that the Titanic's maiden voyage was supposed to be the first of many? Did you know that a single first class ticket would cost $50,000 in today's economy? Did you know that of the four funnels only three were functional? Did you know that some of the ships hull was brought up? Did you know that 2 out of 9 dogs survived the sinking of the Titanic? Did you know that in the filming of James Cameron's the Titanic his replica of the Grand Staircase was destroyed? Did you know that part of the Titanic is located at 41°43'57" N 49°56'49"W? Did you know that there was a lifeboat drill scheduled for April 14, 1912? Did you know that after they alerted the bridge of the iceberg, they had 37 seconds to react before they collided? Did you know that although the Titanic was considered "unsinkable" even though it was made out of weaker materials? Did you know that the Titanic printed its own newspaper everyday on the ship? Did you know that one of Titanic's sister ships, the HMHS Britannic (37°4205N 24°1702E), sank in the Aegean sea in 1916? Did you know that just weeks after the sinking an actress that survived the Titanic starred in the silent film Saved from the Titanic? Did you know that the Titanic nearly collided with another ship while she was leaving the harbor? Did you know it cost $ 7.5 million to build the Titanic ($165,276,080.63 in today's economy)? Did you know that an Australian billionaire is funding the Titanic 2? 2 lifeboats went back to save people. They pulled few people out of the water, and some of them died soon after. About 1,514 died in the accident and 710 were rescued. No one knows the exact number of those on the Titanic. This is because of several reasons, including the fact there were many last minute cancelations, one of which was Milton Hershey. Another reason may have been because some people were listed more than once. The listed number of survivors is between 701 and 713. Either 2,224 or 2,223 people boarded the Titanic. Did you know that they discovered the orchestra master's violin played on the Titanic?
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