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Maoism & Legalism

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Julius Miller

on 22 October 2013

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Transcript of Maoism & Legalism

Mohism & Legalism
By Sasha, Joe, and Juius
Basic Understanding
Mohism - Mohism was a philosophy that flourished during the Warring States era (479 - 222 B.C.E). Mo Di or "Mozi," and his followers searched for reasonable arguments about their philosophical views. Mozi was introducing a "universal love" to end the Warring States Era. Repudiating Confucius, he rejected the proposed ideas: family relations, and social equality. Instead, he proposed ideas of consequentialism and the golden rule "treat others as they themselves wished to be treated."
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mohism/#historical

http://www.research-degree-thesis.com/showinfo-12-67358-0.html
Siting, Bibliography
Videos
http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/16546-comparing-mohism-and-confucianism/
Today we look into the mind of Mozi and Han Fei/Hsun Tzu.
Basic Concepts of The Philosophy Mohism
1. Political
2. Ethical
3. Religion
4. Doctrines and Fa
Connections, and Moism Today

A Battle of Wits (2006) was a movie that came out about Mohism.
On the useless tree, a website holding ancient Chinese thought in Modern Day, compares Mohism to the Republicans.
Jin Guantao, Fan Hongye, and Liu Qingfang, argued that without Mohism Chinese sciences would be totally different today..
A Step into the Past was a television show in 2001 about Mohism.
There are barely any Mohist followers today, but their philosophy sti clings.
Compare and Contrast Mohism vs. Confucianism

Similarities:
- Hierarchy based 0n relationships. Due to this a bureaucrat government.
- Both believe in education and heaven being the highest rank.
Differences
- Moist believe in consequences/free will because they believe heaven is bad only because of unjust rule.
Confucianism believes the heaven is predestined.
- Mohists believe that things like music, and rites were not as important. Confucians though these were the backbone of a prosperous nation.
- Mohist don't like anything tat doesn't benefit the people hence they hate offensive warfare. Confucians were more focused on family, so they didn't have a preference on warfare.
- the educations differed - Mohists believed in practical learning - trade, and commerce. Confucians valued literacy, and art.
Historical Influence And Decline
Legalism
http://www.iep.utm.edu/mozi/

Legalism For Dummies
Legalism was a philosophy solely on government.
Also, popular during the Warring States Era.
Repudiated a government that allowed freedom.
It was government manipulation! Legalism praised the idea of applying force after persuasion failed. (#HungerGames)
Government was to restrain "evil selfishness" of the people.
Main ideas consisted of: censorship, education differing for social class, and excluding any reform of independent ideas.
Mohists believe there was a violence social disorder between disagreement of self interest and yi (morality).
Yi - each person thinks differently of their moral values.
The root of chaos was a political leader who put an end to contention. The goal was to install a wise leader unifying one moral code,
The main purpose of the government was to establish a stable social order by unifying moralities.
The government was a hierarchical society.
Political Standpoint of Mohism
Son of Heaven
picks 3 dukes to appoint states.
the son of heaven is the solution
The 3 Dukes
they appoint leaders to each state
they run defense, public security, and social welfare.
Leaders of the States
they would appoint leaders to the villages.
If they did well, they were praised highly.
If not, usually punished. There qualifications consisted of moral wisdom, and virtuous character.
Leaders of the Villages
They had little to do with the government.
They watched over the mini villages.
They would model themselves after the leader above them, in their state.
Ethical Theory
When the Mohists were arguing doctrines, they created a 'loose' form of consequentialism.
- fa (model standard)
- jian ai (inclusive care)
- li (benefiting each other)
they thought they had to establish and develop some knowledge of what was right and what was wrong.
Ethical theory is not individual but 'dao' (way) - a way of life.
There job was to identify what the dao (way) of humane and right.
For example, "the more injuries, the greater inhumanity, and the more severe crime."
There were 10 doctrines created..
Example: #10
Heavens Intention
The God "Zhi" played a huge role in the ethical theory. Zhi meant order.
1. moral standards
2. peace and social harmony
3. proper social roles
4. Community, charity
Inclusive Care - moral for all, "benefit the world," and a universal love.
impartial focus for benefit of all
consequentialism
community practices
web of social relations
Religion
Accustomed with social and political systems the Mohists needed a way to incorporate relations with nature.
- to share the natural world.
they sometimes used elements/deities from other dynasties:
- Tian (Zhou Dynasty) meant the heavens, sky, and nature.
- Di (Shang Dynasty) meant the ghosts and spirits.
the Gods would enforce morality through punishment and rewards.
Tian was at the top of the hierarchy of Gods
- He created humans, the sun and moon, crop success (by creating 4 seasons), and established government; hence the son of heaven (tian). The son of heaven was the "police" of the world.
There was no afterlife. You would become a ghost.
Arguments against Mohist thought of Tian rewarding and punishing on Earth rather than in the dead, like many other Western Cultures.
This thought related to Confucius and Daoists.
Growth, Belief, Why, and Now
Growth began during a huge collapse in authority during that time period (225 - 400 B.C). They felt the need to reestablish a sense of authority in the people.
They believed that people are selfish and evil; therefore, laws were set to indorse strict rules of what is good and bad. This was restraining parts of life. Communism...
It was an excuse to for using excessive force and manipulation of the government.
Legalism today is present in China. China has strict rules and a harsh censorship, "The Great Firewall of China (also known as the golden Shield project).
Socialistic Legalism in the USSR
Fidel Castro also used Legalism, as setting a harsh rule of law, and unyielding against warfare. JUevos Rancheros...
Communist China
Mao consciously, used many Legalism techniques
Achievements
first ethical and political theories in China.
first form of consequentialism.
However, they did not achieve the moral code that they wanted.
Or prominent dominance in China.
Yet, Mencius, the greatest Confucian thinker, believed "Mo Di and Yanh Zhu (rival) fill the world."
Influence
They influenced Mencius, Xunzi, and Daoists, and the legalist political thinkers.
they either developed similar ideas or they argued against them to stimulate new ideas.
Mohism was also usually compared to Confucius to create Ru- Mo.
Chinese, though, turned to Han, away from Mohism, This leads us to think that Mohism was just a ''splinter' movement.
Following the Qin dynasty, the Mohist movement declined.
It disappeared fully by 206 BC - 24 CE.
Decline
- The Mohist lost all political influence due to their expertise: Which was defense specialist and expert craftsman. Used in the Warring States Period.
- Most of their ideas were largely absorbed by the other schools.
- No one could read thir language, and they were recorded in difficult language. Further, this led to corruption because no adherents could read it.
- Their political and opposition to warfare had been adopted also.
- Just like the reading and writing some of their ideas and government were so out of the norm that Mohist thought could not fuse with anybody leading Vanishing.


http://www.philosophy.hku.hk/ch/Mohism.htm
Full transcript