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Language Assessment and Testing

PUCE FCLL course

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Transcript of Language Assessment and Testing

Practicality within budget contraints $$$

within time contraints

relatively easy to administer

relatively easy to grade with clear scoring procedures
Principles of Language Assessment Practicality >
Is it Practical?

Validity >
Does it measure what you want it to measure?

Reliability >
Is it consistent and dependable?

Authenticity >
Is it a real life experience? Language Assessment and Testing Validity Reliability Test reliability
Does the test give similar results under similar conditions?

Test admin reliability
Is the test given under similar conditions of light, heat, noise, etc.?

Student reliability
Do students get similar scores if they take the test again under similar conditions?

Rater (scorer) reliability
intra-rater: Does the same rater (scorer) give the similar scores on grading the test at different times?
inter-rater: Do different raters give similar scores? Types of Tests Diagnostic
Placement
Achievement/Progress
Proficiency Content-related validity:
Does assessment include a representative sample of contents studied?

Criterion- related validity:
Does assessment relate to course objectives?
concurrent validity
predictive validity

Construct validity:
Does it correspond to underlying theory/beliefs about language?

Face Validity:
Is it convincing to stakeholders? ______
invalid Authenticity real-life tasks!! Consequential validity:
Does it provide for beneficial washback? Does it prejudice those of lower socioeconomic levels? the standard errror of measurement and true score True score is the average score that a student would get if she took a particular test several times.
To make statements about the probability of a student's true score being within a certain number of points of their actual test score on a particular test, we need to know the standard error of measurement of that test. μ = mean (average score)
= standard deviation language testing dichotomies direct vs indirect
subjective vs objective
formative vs summative
discrete point vs integrative
norm-referenced vs criterion-referenced stages in test development state the test 'problem'
write test specifications
write and moderate items (colleagues review and make suggestions)
trial items informally with native-speakers and modify
trial the test on on an appropriate group of students
analyse results and make changes if necessary
calibrate scales
validation (does the test work?)
preparation of test manual and training of staff improving reliability write unambiguous items
provide clear and explicit instructions
ensure tests are well laid out and perfectly legible
ensure test takers are familiar with test format and testing techniques
provide uniform and non-distracting conditions of test admin
use items that permit scoring which is as objective as possible
avoid giving choices
provide a detailed scoring key
train scorers
identify test takers by number, not name
employ multiple, independent scoring item types and tasks elicitation mode: oral (ss listen) written (ss read) graphic word same plan
sentence(s) same map
question same picture
directions same photo
monologue paragraph video
pre-recorded short text (spoken/
dialogue short story graphic)
interactive book
dialogue -----------------------------------------------------------------------
response mode: oral (ss speak) written (ss write) graphic repeat m/c plan
read aloud fill the blanks drawing
yes/no spell a word picture
short response define a term
description short answer
role play dictation
monologue directions
(speech) description
interactive essay
dialogue assessing listening observing the performance
of the 4 skills Principles:
1. Consider the fallibility of the results of a single performance. You should triangulate your measurements: consider at least 2 performances and/or contexts before drawing a conclusion using one or more of the following designs -
several tests
a single test with multiple tasks (fresh starts) to account for learning styles and performance variables
in-class and extra-class graded work
alternative forms of assessment, e.g. journal, portfolio, observation, self-assessment, peer assessment

2. Rely as much as possible on observable performance. Note that while speaking and writing (productive skills) can be directly observed, listening and reading (receptive skills) cannot be directly observed, only resulting behavior can be observed. microskills to be assessed:
linguistic competence:
discriminate among phonemes
retain chunks of L. in STM
recognize stress patterns in words and sentences, including reduced forms, plus intonation contours and role;
distinguish word boundaries, recognize word classes, agreement, plurals, interpret syntax
recognize an adequate number of lexical items
sociolinguistic competence:
process speech at diff rates of delivery, containing pauses, errors, corrections, etc.
recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in diff grammatical forms
discourse competence
recognize cohesive devices

macroskills to be assessed:
sociolinguistic competence:
recognize the communicative functions of utterances, according to situation, participants, etc.
recognize the pragmatics of facial features, kinesics, body language, and other non-verbal clues
discourse competence:
infer situations, participants,etc. using real world knowledge from events, ideas, etc. described, predict outcomes, infer links and connections between events , deduce causes and effects, generalizations, exemplification, and detect relations such as main idea, supporting idea, given information, new information. designing assessment tasks for listening Intensive listening:
recognizing phonological and morphological elements
paraphrase recognition
sentence repetition

Responsive listening:
responding to a question in written form
responding to a question in graphic form

Selective listening:
listening cloze/fill the blanks
information transfer - single picture cues, chart filling, graphics
Extensive listening:
dictation
communicative stimulus- response: e.g. dialogue - m/c
authentic listening tasks - note-taking, editing, retelling, interpretative tasks microskills to be assessed:
linguistic competence:
produce differences among phonemes
produce chunks of L.
produce stress patterns in words and sentences, including reduced forms, plus intonation contours and role;
produce correct word classes and syntax
produce fluent speech at diff rates of delivery, containing pauses, errors, corrections, etc.
use an adequate number of lexical units for pragmatic purposes
sociolinguistic competence:
express a particular meaning in diff grammatical forms
discourse competence:
use cohesive devices in spoken discourse
strategic competence:
fillers, self-corrections, mime, etc.

macroskills to be assessed:
sociolinguistic competence:
accomplish appropriately communicative functions of utterances, according to situation, participants, etc.
use appropriate styles, registers, conversation rules
infer situations, participants,etc. using real world knowledge
discourse competence:
convey links and connections between events, such as causes and effects, generalizations, exemplification, and relations such as main idea, supporting idea, given information, new information.
convey facial features, kinesics, body language, and other non-verbal clues
strategic competence:
paraphrasing, circumlocution, asking for help, assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you assessing speaking designing assessment tasks for speaking Imitative speaking:
word repetition
phrase, sentence repetition
Intensive speaking:
directed response
read-aloud tasks
sentence/dialogue completion
oral questionnaire
picture-cued task

Responsive speaking:
question and answer
giving instructions and directions
paraphrasing

Interactive speaking:
interview
role play
discussions/conversations
games

Extensive speaking:
oral presentations
picture-cued story-telling assessing reading skills microskills to be assessed:
linguistic competence:
discriminate among the distinctive graphemes (letters) and orthographic patterns
retain chunks of written L. in STM
recognize word classes and syntax
recognize an adequate number of lexical units for reading purposes
process writing at an efficient rate of spped according to the purpose.
sociolinguistic competence:
recognize that a particular meaning may be expresses in diff grammatical forms
discourse competence:
recognize cohesive devices in written discourse

macroskills to be assessed:
sociolinguistic competence:
recognize the communicative and rhetorical functions of sentences, according to situation, participants, etc.
discourse competence:
infer situations, participants,etc. using real world knowledge from events, ideas, etc. described, predict outcomes, infer links and connections between events , deduce causes and effects, generalizations, exemplification, and detect relations such as main idea, supporting idea, given information, new information.
pragmatic competence
distinguish between literal and implied meanings
detect culturally specific references and interpret them in a context of appropriate cultural schemata
reading strategies
develop and use a battery of reading strategies, such as scanning, skimming, detecting discourse markers, guessing the meaning of words from context, and activating relevant schemata to interpret texts. designing assessment tasks for reading perceptive reading
reading aloud
written response
multiple choice for orthographical recognition
picture-cued items

selective reading
multiple choice for recognition of grammar or lexis
matching tasks
editing tasks
picture-cued tasks
gap-filling tasks

interactive reading
cloze tasks
reading comprehension questions
short answer tasks
editing
scanning tasks
ordering tasks
information transfer

extensive reading
skimming tasks
summarizing and responding
note-taking and outlining Genres of the written language
academic writing
papers, reports, essays
journal articles
theses, dissertations
job-related writing
messages, letters, emails
memos, reports
advertisements, announcements
personal writing
letters, emails, SMS, chats
messages, notes,
shopping lists, reminders
financial documents, forms
diaries, personal journals, fiction assessing writing skills microskills to be assessed:
linguistic competence:
produce differences among graphemes
produce written chunks of L.
produce correct word classes and syntax
produce fluent writing at diff rates
use an adequate number of lexical units for pragmatic purposes
sociolinguistic competence:
express a particular meaning in diff grammatical forms
discourse competence:
use cohesive devices in written discourse

macroskills to be assessed:
sociolinguistic competence:
accomplish appropriately communicative functions of sentences, according to situation, participants, etc.
use appropriate styles, registers
infer situations, etc. of the readers using real world knowledge
discourse competence:
convey links and connections between events, such as causes and effects, generalizations, exemplification, and relations such as main idea, supporting idea, given information, new information. assessing writing skills enabling skills Imitative writing:
copying letters, words, punctuation

Intensive writing:
dictation
grammatical transformation tasks
vocabulary tasks
short answer and sentence completion
instructions, directions

Responsive writing:
short reports
summaries
brief narratives or descriptions
interpretations of graphs, tables, charts

Extensive writing:
paraphrasing
picture-cued writing
paragraph construction tasks
extended narration, description, argument, exposition
research papers, designing assessment tasks for writing scoring writing tasks descriptors/rubrics
grammar
spelling, punctuation
vocabulary
register, style
cohesion/coherence

levels of performance for each descriptor, e.g. scale of 0-5 alternatives in assessment performance based assessment: http://dnm.policiaecuador.gob.ec/index.php?id=166&L=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=819&cHash=04ce64eba59c64c1723777b70f913df6
portfolios
journals/logs, e.g. dialogue journals, blogs (general or specific to language learning)
conferences/interviews
observations
self/peer assessments
Full transcript