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The Endocrine System

AP Biology Project

Tess Greweling

on 29 March 2013

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Transcript of The Endocrine System

Process Hormones pass through the blood to arrive at a target organ which contain the appropriate receptor. The signal from the hormone binds to a specific protein (which can either be in the plasma membrane or inside the cell nucleus). If the cell has the right receptor for a particular signal, this will trigger a response, or change the behavior of the cell, which is known as SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. A series of these molecular changes that converts to extracellular chemical signals to a specific cellular response is called the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY. Most hormones have plasma membrane receptors, but some hormones such as steroid and thyroid regulators, enter in the cell. Lower Glands The Endocrine System By: Katie Koke and Tess Greweling Glands in the Brain Hypothalamus Results By: Katie Koke and Tess Greweling Lies above the pituitary gland. It controls all means of production and allows the hormones to start and stop in the pituitary glands, through "releasing" hormones. The hormones it releases are: Growth hormones (GH), Thyrotroph, TRH, Corticoptropin (CRH), Gonadotropin(GnRH), Lutenizing hormone (LH), and the Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Pineal Pituitary Known as the "master gland" because its hormones regulate so many functions. However, it obeys the commands of the hypothalamus gland. It is divided into two parts anterior pituitary produces Prolactin, Growth Hormone, Andrenocorticotropin (ACTH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), lutenizing (LH), and Follicle-Stimulating hormone (FSH). posterior pituitary. produces Oxytocin (milk letdown and contractions) and Antidiuretic hormone (water balance regulation). It is a small mass of tissue near the mammalian brain. It secretes the hormone melatonin (regulates functions related to light as well as other biological rhythms). It also stops the action of gonadotropin, which causes the testes and ovaries to develop and function. Thyroid It is located inside the neck. It controls metabolism, helps break down food, and releases the hormones tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Adrenal Glands CORTEX produces Glucocorticodes (which helps with blood sugar, burn of protein and fat, and fever response) and Mineralcorticoids (controls blood volume, blood pressure, and produces sex hormones. Thymus This gland is needed in the early stage of life. It secretes humoral factors. It also helps develop the lymphoid system which helps it reach a mature immune system. Pancreas It is located behind the stomach. It helps you maintain a healthy blood sugar and secretes insulin (which helps glucose move from the blood). Parathyroid Glands It is located between the thyroid gland. Hormones from this gland control calcium and phosphorus levels and bone development. It secretes two different endocrine hormones: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. MEDULLA produces adrenaline, controls heart rate, improves oxygen airways, blood flow to the muscles, and is typically active when a person is
scared, excited, or under stress. Types of Regulators Let's send a message! But how?! Factors that may affect the Endocrine System... AGING ILLNESS Alters hormone production and secretion, metabolism, blood levels, biological activities, target cell response, and bodily rhythms. Affects the kidney and liver (which play a important roles throughout the endo-system) and may cause chronic heart and disorders in the kidney and liver. STRESS Adrenal glands MUST produce cortisol. If they don't, this may cause: trauma, severe illness or infection, intense heat or chill, disease, etc. ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR This can mimic natural hormone binding at target cell receptors and block cellular events associated with hormone binding. This can later disrupt sex development, decrease fertility, defect birth, reduce immune response, etc. GENETICS Any missing, extra, altered, or damaged chromosomes
can result in diseases or conditions related to hormones CYCLES OF HORMONE RELEASE Time affects the release of certain hormones. -Cortisol builds up early in the day, decreases towards the evening, rises in sleep, and peaks in the early morning. Another example- growth hormones rise 90 minutes after sleep and during the first two hours of a deep sleep. It also increases if one has low blood sugar, starving, exercising, excited, or suffers from severe injury. And the menstrual cycle occurs every 28 days. Before we begin our journey through the
endocrine system, let's start with the basics... What is the endocrine system? It is one of the body's main systems for communicating, controlling, and regulating the body's work through chemical messages and signals. These chemical messages, or HORMONES, come from a system of glands.

Hormones travel throughout the body coordinating complex processes like growth, metabolism, and fertility.

Hormones can influence the function of the immune system, and even alter behavior. Before birth, they guide development of the brain and reproductive system.

Hormones are the reason why your arms are the same length, why you can turn food into fuel, and why you changed from head to toe at puberty. It's all thanks to these chemicals that distant parts of the body communicate with one another during elaborate, and important, events. When the hormone successfully delivers the message to the body, the following should be under control: Body energy levels, reproduction, growth and development, homeostasis (internal balance of body systems), proper responses to surroundings, stress, and injury. GROWTH FACTORS:
-Are peptides and proteins that
stimulate cell proliferation.
-They have several kinds of target cells
and functions.
-Can enhance the strength of synapses
between neurons in the brain. NITRIC OXIDE:
-Many cells produce this.
-Highly toxic and reactive.
-Is secreted by white blood cells.
-Kills bacteria and cancer cells.
-Helps muscles relax. PROSTAGLANDINS (PGs):
-Are modified fatty acids.
-They stimulate contraction of the smooth muscles in
the wall of the uterus.
-Works the female reproductive system
-Helps with defense systems. If the receptor is INSIDE the cell nucleus, it will transcribe the message or change the gene expression. The hormone-receptor complex grabs on to specific places in the DNA that either stimulates it, or represses it. The newly packaged mRNA is then translated into a new protein in the cytoplasm. To achieve effective communication the endo-system works with: the nervous system, reproductive system, kidneys, gut, liver, pancreas, and fat. Reproductive Glands Testes They are the female reproductive glands , which produce estrogen and progesterone. They also maintain pregnancy, the menstrual cycle, and egg development. A common change it undergoes is menopause. Ovaries They are the male reproductive glands
which secrete the hormone testosterone
which control sex traits,
the development of the penis and
testes, pubic hair, low voice,
and muscle development. For more on the different types of hormones and their
functions, see p. 961-972 in your Bio Book.
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