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Fitness Training Methods

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Chris Bailey

on 20 November 2014

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Transcript of Fitness Training Methods

Fitness Training Methods
Link the methods of fitness cards with the relevant component of fitness
Aerobic Endurance Training
Aerobic endurance is the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to work efficiently, supplying nutrients and oxygen to working muscles during sustained physical activity.
Strength, muscular endurance and power training
Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert maximal force.
Muscular endurance is the ability of the muscular system to work efficiently, in which a muscle can repeatedly contract over a period of time against a light to moderate resistance.
Power is the amount of work done in a unit of time. It is made up of speed and strength.
Flexibility Training
Flexibility training is defined as the ability to move all joints fluidly through their complete range of movement
Methods to test physical fitness components
Aerobic Endurance - continuous, fartlek and interval

Muscular Endurance - circuit and resistance training

Flexibility - Static (passive/active), ballistic and PNF

Speed - Hollow and acceleration sprints and interval training

Muscular strength - circuit and resistance training
Methods to test skill-related fitness components
Agility - interval and fartlek training

Balance - Flexibility and core training will enhance balance

Power - resistance training and plyometrics

What do you think training methods need to be completed effectively?
Use of safe and appropriate equipment,
Use of safe and correct training technique
Warm-up and cool-downs should be completed so that maximum training benefits can be attained
Should apply the additional principles
What principle was missing from the video?
They should link to the different components of fitness
Speed training
Speed is defined as distance dived by time taken. It is broken down into three types;
Accelerative speed
Pure speed
Speed endurance
Continuous Training
Long, slow distance training that is performed at a steady pace and moderate intendity for at least 30 minutes.
There are three main methods of training for aerobic endurance:
A standard warm-up and cool-down should be part of a continuous training session.
Strengths and weaknesses
- No specialist equipment needed

- Easy to organise and carry out

- Can be made sport specific

Builds an endurance base for athletes
- Long distance training can be boring

- Risk of injury when training on hard surfaces

- Over develops aerobic system and ignores anaerobic system
Fartlek Training
Continuous training (no rest) performed at varying intensity. Generally performed by running at different speeds over different terrains. Use of equipment can increase intensity e.g. running harness or weighted backpack.
A standard warm-up and cool-down should be part of a continuous training session.
Strengths and weaknesses
- Can be made sport specific

- No need for specialist equipment

- Performer controls intensity

- Add variety and interest to training
- Intensity needs to be carefully controlled

- Good self-discipline and motivation needed to maintain work rate

Interval Training
Work periods are alternated with rest and recovery periods. Varying intensity and length of rest periods, both the aerobic and anaerobic systems can be improved. Aerobic training would be performed at 60-85% of max HR and 60% VO2max.

Typical work time varies from 30 seconds to 5 minutes and recovery periods can include jogging, walking or complete rest.
A standard warm-up and cool-down should be part of a interval training session.
Strengths and weaknesses
- Allows clear progressive overload by increasing work periods and decreasing rest intervals

- Can be made sport specific

- No specialist equipment needed

- Used for both aerobic and anaerobic endurance

- Distance, time and intensity can meet the needs of individual
- Performer may lose interest due repetition

- Needs careful planning

For aerobic endurance the should be a decrease in rest periods and work intensity.

Planning should consider:
- duration and intensity of work intervals
- duration and intensity of rest intervals
- total number of intervals in a session
Circuit training
Involves a number of exercise stations completed to achieve a set goal.
Can be used to improve strength, endurance and power.
There are three methods of training:
What needs to be considered when designing a circuit?
Training goals - will effect the type of exercises performed

How many stations are used

How long an athlete exercises at each station

What intensity will be selected for each station (RPE/training zone/weight)

Rest periods between stations

Can be made specific to the performers needs

No need for specialist or expensive equipment

Can be used to develop muscular strength and endurance, power and aerobic endurance

A variety of exercises can be used to maintain motivation

Takes time to plan and organise

Demonstrations are required to ensure that the participants know the correct technique at each station
Plyometric exercises are specialised, high intensity training techniques used to develop athletic power (strength and speed). They are particularly popular amongst athletes who have to lift their bodies such as a basketball player or hurdler.

Plyometric training involves high intensity, explosive muscular contractions that will engage the stretch reflex.

Breaking it down.....
The aim is to move quickly before the body is ready to consciously react and therefore an over-eager reflex is engaged! If this is done often enough the body will react by boosting muscle fibres in that area.

Science behind plyometrics
For a muscle to cause movement it must shorten, this is known as a concentric contraction. There is only so much force that can be generated by a concentric contraction.
Plyometric exercise works as a form of power training because as the muscle initially lengthens it is eccentrically contracting just prior to the concentric contraction which will enable the movement. The eccentric contraction is engaged by a quick stretch prior to movement receptors in the muscle spindles detect this stretch and invoke an involuntary, protective stretch reflex to prevent overstretching or injury.
The stretch reflex increases the activity in the muscle undergoing the eccentric muscle action and as such
this reflexive contraction is more powerful than a regular concentric muscle contraction.

HOWEVER if the eccentric muscle contraction is not instantly followed by a concentric action then the potential energy that has been created by the stretch reflex response, will be lost.

Can be made specific to the performers sport

There is little cost and can be done without specialist equipment

Need to be experienced to perform this type of training safely
Eccentric = lengthening

Concentric = shortening

Put these activities into the correct contraction column:
Bicep during a press-up
Tricep during a press-up
Abdominal muscles during the plank
Quadriceps during lunge jumps
Hamstrings during lunge jumps

Agonist Muscle - prime mover

Antagonist Muscle - relax
Resistance Training
Resistance training is a type of exercise that applies an external resistance on a muscle to develop muscle strength, tone, mass and endurance.

Progressive overload allows for these adaptations to take place because it is facilitating muscular hypertrophy. Muscular hypertrophy occurs when muscle fibres split during exercise and then adapt and repair to increase in size. Bigger muscle fibres means a greater muscle cross-section.

Can be designed to target specific muscles or muscle groups

Effective method for strength and endurance gains

Session needs careful organisation and correct technique

Requires access to weights or machines

For heavy weights a spotter is needed
We are going to complete some free weight exercise..
Bicep curls
Tricep Extensions
Upright rows
Bent over rows
Seated overhead press
Lateral raise
Front raise

Maximum strength?
Elastic strength?
Strength endurance?
What is needed for....
How do these methods develop muscular strength, muscular endurance and power?
Static stretching
Stretching a muscle slowly to its full range of movement and then holding for 10-20 seconds
Active - done by performer on their own
Passive - assisted by another person or object
Strengths and weaknesses
Easy to complete

Used in the warm-up and cool-down to prevent injury
Muscles need to be warm in order to get maximum benefit from stretch and avoid injury
Ballistic stretching
Stretching muscles by fast, bouncy movements through their full range of movement
Strengths and weaknesses
Good at developing flexibility as it forces muscles to stretch to their full range of motion
Requires good level of flexibility to begin with

Can cause injury if muscle is overstretched
Advanced passive stretching - uses the stretch reflex. Stretches the muscle to its full capability so that over the muscles full range of movement will increase.
Strengths and weaknesses
Can be made sport specific

Little cost

Need experience to perform technique safely

May require two people working together
Hollow sprints
A series of sprints separated by a period of jogging/walking.
An example training session would include;

Set of ten cones 20 metres apart
Sprint 20m followed by jog 20m until you reach the final cone
Complete 8 sets
Advantages and disadvantages
No specialist equipment needed

Easy to organise

Can be made sport specific
Repetitive so performer may get bored

Focus and motivation is required throughout
Acceleration sprints
In this training the pace is slowly increased from standing to jogging to striding and then to maximum sprint.
An example training session would be:

25m hill sprints at 15% gradient for 8 repetitions
Walk back to the start after each rep
1.5 to 2.5 minutes rest between each repetition
Advantages and disadvantages
No specialist equipment needed

Easy method to organise and complete
Performer may lose interest due to repetition

Motivation and focus needs to be maintained
Interval Training
Alternating work and rest periods, to develop speed work intervals need to be short and intense.
To develop[ speed using this method the number of rest periods need to be increased, the work intervals decreased and the work intensity increased.
Advantages and disadvantages
No specialist equipment required

Can be made sport specific

Can be made specific to speed and anaerobic gains

Distance, time and intensity can adapted to meet individual needs
May lose interest

Needs to be carefully planned
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