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Ancient Greek Philosophy Project
Transcript of Ancient Greek Philosophy Project
He fought as a soldier in the Peloponnesian War
He believed that the greatest accomplishment in life is pure happiness
He was the most famous traveling teacher of Greece, but spent most of his time in Athens
He was the tutor of Plato, another great Greek philosopher His Life Born in 469 BCE
Died in 399 BCE after being sentenced to execution through hemlock because the government felt that his teachings were corrupting the youth of Athens
Hemlock= a poisonous plant that belongs to the carrot family Socratic Method A thought process created by Socrates where he asked his students a series of questions in hope that they will discover a deeper meaning to their answers without him directly telling them. The students were unaware of his teaching method. Plato Beliefs: He felt that everyone had an idea of what the world is really like, but no one knows what composes the ideal world. He broke things into two groups, 1) what a person's mind creates and 2) an actual existing form that is perfect. Facts He wrote down the conversations that his teacher, Socrates, had with others and this is how we know so much about Socrates' beliefs
He wrote a book entitled "The Republic". This book expressed his thoughts on governmental tactics that would work better for the Athenians
He was an excellent writer who wrote over 30 dialogues
His books were called dialogues because they were often written in a conversation format
He was the teacher of Aristotle Aristotle Beliefs: He believed that everything could be broken down into simpler forms. He mainly believed this when dealing with species and individuals. One of his theories was that a group of specialized individuals creates a greater overall group, which he called a species Facts He formed the first concept of the scientific method
He defined and created syllogism
All of his teachings weren't accepted until 1500 AD
Since he was one of Plato's greatest students he thought he was next in line to become the principle of the Academy. However, he wasn't
Once he was rejected the principle job he left to go be a teacher to royalty, but later returned and made a rival school called Peripatetic His Life He was born in 429 BCE in Athens to a wealthy and very powerful family
Founded the Academy located in Athens in 387 BCE
The Academy was the longest lasting school of its time
At the Academy they enforced his idea of a perfect education
Plato's Perfect Education: 10 years of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and harmonics. Then 5 years of dialectics
He died in 347 BCE Plato's Cave Analogy Plato's analogy states that humans are like a group of men who have been chained together and sit inside a cave looking at a wall for their whole life in the complete darkness. In this analogy, there is a fire blazing behind the men and prisoners with statues that represented items outside of the cave. The men staring at the wall began to form a concept of what the shadows are and what they do. They associate words and definitions with the objects. However, one of the men escaped the cave and saw the real world in a whole new light. When this man came back to tell the others what he discovered they think he went insane because they have their own perception of the items on the wall through the shadows. The men were confused because all they knew were their shadows. They never had the chance to see the truth behind the objects and they never saw the objects from different perspectives. We are like the men in the cave because we have only seen the world from one point of view so we have formed our own concepts of truth and existence when really, its possible that there is an ideal world that no one knows exists. His Life He was born in 384 BCE in a town a little east of Macedonia
When he left in 338 BCE to teach royalty he was really going to go and teach Alexander the Great. However, when Alexander took control of Macedonia he was more focused on war then Aristotle's teachings, so Aristotle returned to Athens and opened his own school
Aristotle died in 322 BCE The Four
Causes Aristotle believed that if anything were to exist in nature it had to meet four rules, which he called the Four Causes. The causes are:
Material Cause= Anything that exists is composed by a material. Example: A spoon is composed of metal
Formal Cause= Anything that exists was planned. Example: A spoon's creation was planned by a craftsman
Efficient Cause= Anything that exists has a specialized shape. Example: A spoon has a circular bowl end and a long thin handle
Finale Cause= Anything that exists has a purpose. Example: A spoon is used to consume food