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Antibiotic Resistance

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Abby Schwaiger

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance
Bacteria bonds to different molecule so antibiotic cannot bind to site
Scavenging spare DNA from dead, broken down bacteria
Ex: Produce enzymes called beta-lactamases that destroy penicillin
Bacteria decrease permiability of membrane to keep drug out
Abby Schwaiger & Abbey Walker
P1

What is Antibiotic Resistance?
Science Daily defines antibiotic resistance as " the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic."

This means that bacteria can protect itself against antibiotic medication.

How does bacteria become resistant?
http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/a/antibiotic_resistance.htm

http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/cellular-microscopic/question561.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/media/dpk/2013/dpk-vs-hai.html

http://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cre/cre-toolkit/rCREprevention-AppendixB.html
Both plates grow CRE bacteria and contain discs with antibiotics on them.
Left plate is susceptible to antibiotics and is unable to grow around the discs.
Right plate has CRE resistant to all tested antibiotics and is able to grow near discs.
Avoiding the Antibiotic
Keep drug out using ATP pumps to reject antibiotic
Changing the Target
Retaliation
Some bacteria destroy antibiotic directly
Genetic Alteration
Bacteria reproduces with antibiotic resistant gene
Transformation- microbes join together and transfer DNA
Plasmid can code for resistance
Through a transposon
BREAKING NEWS

CRE Bacterial Infection - The 2013 Superbug - Kills More than Half of Its Infected Patients

This bacterial health scare has instilled obsolescence of all known, current generations of bacteria due to its powerful antibiotic resistance.
This strain of bacteria, known as Carbapenem-Resistant enterobacteriaceae, has been dubbed one of the most dangerous superbugs of all time.
But what is antibiotic resistance and how does it occur?
The CRE Superbug...
Hogan, D. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/a/antibiotic_resistance.htm


(n.d.). Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/cellular-microscopic/question561.htm
(n.d.). Retrieved from website: http://www.cdc.gov/media/dpk/2013/dpk-vs-hai.html
Horizontal Gene Transfer
Horizontal gene transfer is a way bacteria can facilitate gene sharing in a way that does not require sexual reproduction.
Naturally Occurring Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotics in Produce
Over-prescribing
Horizontal gene transfer can occur in one of three ways - conjugation, transduction, or transformation
Mostly carried out by the United States, antibiotic enriched feed is commonly used for livestock because it produces a larger animal.
Up to 70% of livestock are nourished on antibiotic resistant feed. Flourquinolones are the main antibiotic administered to animals.
Naturally occurring antibiotic resistance is also somewhat common in low levels of effectiveness because of certain genes, known in our bodies known as the environmental resistome.
In fact, these genes can even pass these resistant traits to non-pathogenic bacteria, furthering the effects of antibiotic resistance.

The number one cause of antibiotic resistance, however, is over-prescribing. The main cause of misuse of these antibiotics is improper diagnosis.

Conjugation
Transduction
Transformation
Revocation of antibiotic use in animals has been implemented with independent markets providing "antibiotic free" produce.
These antibiotics can be passed by...
Consuming the meat
Indirect or direct contact with animals
The environment
Over 90% of antibiotic prescriptions contain some sort of error.
For example, a doctor may prescribe a penicillin for a viral meningitis case believing it is bacterial.
To prevent over-prescribing, doctors can conduct thorough tests to determine whether an antibiotic is needed in the first place.
Even in cases where antibiotics are accurately prescribed, patients may feel inclined to not finish them.
Not finishing an antibiotic prescription can lead to some bacteria surviving and becoming resistant to that specific antibiotic.
This can also lead antibiotics to be recycled in the environment
Gene alters because of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA) being present in the bacteria.
Bacterial DNA is moved by a mircophage or virus to another bacteria
The process of genetic sharing by bacterial cell-to-cell contact
Antibiotic resistance can lead to...
Various appendage loss and death have resulted due to bacterial infections taking over certain areas of the body and destroying the tissue.


Amputations
A gene
Cancer
Multiple drug resistance
"Superbugs"
Broadly speaking, multiple drug resistance is any type of pathogen (virus, bacteria, etc.) that has become resistant to their specific, correlative antimicrobial.
When it comes to antibiotics, many superbugs have developed as a result of the becoming resistant to all generations.
Some well known bacterial superbugs are...
There are no feasible ways to counteract naturally occurring antibiotic resistance.
Recent studies show that bacteria has also been found to be a carcinogen, or cancer causing agent.
This is done most specifically by inflammation or production of carcinogenic bacterial metabolites.
The bacterial responsible for damaging tissues this extensively are known as flesh-eating bacteria, or scientifically as necrotizing fasciitis.
Antibiotic resistance could also therefore lead to of cancer outbreaks.
A patient with necrotizing fasciitis
The most notably suspected bacteria to cause cancer is H. pylori
Antibiotic resistance has led to a resurgence of necrotizing faciitis and other bacterial infections that cause and amputations.
How cancer occurs
Evolution of prosthetics
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureu
Streptococcus
Clostridium difficile
Salmonella and E. coli
Acinetobacter baumannii
CRE
Has spread to 42 states..
Is highly contagious, especially in hospitals...
Difficult and sometimes impossible to treat...
Can only be treated with potentially "toxic" antibiotics
This resistance has led to new prosthetic production
Antibiotic Resistance - Patient Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.acponline.org/patients_families/diseases_conditions/antibiotic_resistance/
Citations
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