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AP: Industrial Revolution and Marxism
Transcript of AP: Industrial Revolution and Marxism
-Through investing their inherited money, stay on top during Industrial Revolution despite not working
-Also make money through rents to farmers
-While decline in importance by 1840s, still maintain their titles.
-Grows with industry, as there are more investment opportunities. Would often buy land and move into upper class
-Politically liberal, favoring policies that gave them a voice in Parliament
-To rise in economic status was seen as a virtue, as it indicated strong morals and work ethic
Middle Class Women
-Having a wife inside the home, doing domestic duties, was sign of status
-By late 1800s, however, young Middle Class women work secretarial jobs in business- however, it was still expected that they stayed home after marriage
-70% of British population
-Increased urbanization in 1800s
-Horrible conditions in cities, long working hours, and few rights as workers.
-Men worked in factories, while women worked in textile mills or as servants
John Snow and Cholera- 1854
-Labor unions begin to form in order to strike for better conditions (legalized in 1824)
-Luddite movement of late 17 early 1800s was composed of those who feared they were being replaced by machines. Would travel in bands and destroy factories/machinery. Troops sent to suppress them and destroying a machine was made punishable by death penalty.
-Argued that capitalism/industrialization would lead to a society divided between rich and power
-Rich would own everything, while the poor worked to create wealth they could not keep.
-Argued for a "communist revolution" to divide property equally.
Karl Marx- Communist Manifesto (1848)
Reactions to Marxism
-"Socialist" political parties established throughout Europe, varying in how extreme they were
-In Britain, the "Labour Party" was formed in 1890s, advocating a peaceful transition to socialism
-While originally repressed, these parties do gain power over time
Counters to Socialism
-Marx did not expect the "Middle Class" to grow in the way it did
-Over time, raises rise due to pressure from unions + competition.
-Quality of life increases in England, with lower mortality rates and better diets
-As average English males gained right to vote, the government reformed and abolished child labor, regulated factories, and even by 1911 adding some welfare
Nationalism vs Socialism
-Nationalism gives workers and owners something to unite them
-Socialism/Communism's call for "workers around the world, unite" contradicted nationalistic loyalty